By Gerhard M. Tarmann
The Zygaenidae are a family members of day-flying moths with an strange biology – they're able to liberating prussic (hydrocyanic) acid. All Australian species belong to the subfamily Procridinae (commonly often called foresters) and plenty of of those characteristic iridescent eco-friendly colors or a wasp-like glance. this is often the 1st research of the Australian fauna of those beautiful and biologically attention-grabbing moths. during this quantity their attractiveness is captured larger-than-life in 114 finely unique pics by means of acclaimed artist Franti?ek Gregor, environment a brand new benchmark for moth illustrations. entire common chapters talk about zygaenid morphology, biology, phylogeny and category, with significant new details of world-wide relevance. The e-book then offers in-depth remedies of the ten genera and forty three species found in Australia, together with four genera and 21 species new to technological know-how. It good points keys to genera and species, photographs of genitalia of either sexes and different diagnostic buildings, and distribution maps for all species. also, there are eight pages of color images and over four hundred photographs of microscopic constructions, together with greater than 100 excellent scanning electron micrographs. FeaturesFeatures fifty seven color plates with 114 exact color work by way of acclaimed artist Franti?ek Gregor. each one species is illustrated, many at 10 occasions their unique dimension. also, there are 7 plates of color images of dwell moths, caterpillars and habitats, and over four hundred pictures of microscopic buildings, together with over a hundred marvelous scanning electron micrographs. supplies an updated class of Australian zygaenids at commonly used and particular point, with keys to spot all Australian zygaenid species. presents in-depth remedies of the ten genera and forty three species found in Australia, placing the Australian zygaenids into context with the realm fauna. contains complete chapters on morphology (including immatures), biology, phylogeny and class, as a way to be necessary for investigations of zygaenid biology and chemoecology.
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Additional info for Zygaenid Moths of Australia: Revision of the Zygaenidae of Australia (Procridinae: Artonini) Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, Volume 9 (Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera)
J. ) 132: Dorsal view; 133: lateral view. ZYGAENID MORPHOLOGY zygaenid larvae resemble lycaenid larvae and are also found on the same host-plants. Either group might gain from the other’s chemical protection or even from the ants that are very often symbiotic with the larvae of lycaenids (Naumann, Tarmann and Tremewan 1999: 18). Some colourful chalcosiine larvae also resemble limacodid larvae that are also well protected by toxins. For an account of the larval defence system of zygaenids see p.
Their colour varies from pale yellowish green or whitish green to bright yellow or orange. The eggs are laid singly, in small rows, in single flat layers or in pyramidal or irregularly shaped batches. They are attached to the substrate by a secretion from the female glandula sebacea. In Zygaeninae and most Procridinae they are additionally coated with a sticky proteinaceous secretion or by urticating spiny scales. Oviposition of single eggs is considered to represent the ancestral egg-laying pattern, and pyramidal or irregular batches the derived pattern; the latter can be clearly seen in the Zygaeninae (Naumann, Tarmann and Tremewan 1999: text-fig.
E. ) 87: lateral view; 88: lateral view, detail, ‘procridine chaetosema’; 89: lateral view, detail, eyelash; 90: detail, compound eye; 91: detail, compound eye, with inter-ommatidial seta. 25 26 ZYGAENID MOTHS OF AUSTRALIA 92 93 1 mm 94 95 96 97 Figs 92–97. Male antenna of Adscita (Adscita) statices (Linnaeus, 1758) (Procridini). (E. ) 92: Entire view; 93: detail, distal part; 94: detail, distal part (high magnification); 95: detail, tip of antenna (high magnification); 96–97: detail, pectinations.