By Sarah D. Phillips
In postsocialist Ukraine, with privatization and the scaling again of the social defense internet, it's essentially girls who've been left as leaders of service-oriented NGOs and mutual relief institutions, taking good care of the marginalized and destitute with very little help from the Ukrainian nation. Sarah D. Phillips follows eleven activists over the process numerous years to record the unforeseen results that social activism has produced for ladies: expanding social inequality and "differentiation" within the kind of new cultural standards for effective citizenship and new definitions of the rights and wishes of varied different types of voters.
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Extra resources for Women's Social Activism in the New Ukraine: Development and the Politics of Differentiation (New Anthropologies of Europe)
The provisions entailed in legislation offering mothers of five or more children early retirement (they must have these children in the household until they are eight years old) ensure that children are raised by families at least until school age and that families do not simply produce children and abandon them to receive state benefits. ”24 Overall these reforms tend to follow Kuchma’s line of “educational work,” with emphasis placed on surveillance and stimulating the poor and vulnerable to active citizenship.
But this fact does not excuse Western analysts—particularly those so keen on the rebuilding of civil society—for their consistent failure to analyze the differential participation of various social groups in the new world of politics and community. Questions need to be asked: Civil society for whom? Who shall be heard in the new community of citizens, and why? (Lampland 2000:213) 18 Women’s Social Activism in the New Ukraine I see this book as an answer to Lampland’s challenge. My focus on differentiation—illustrated here ethnographically via the contrasting histories of NGO leaders like Svetlana, Ivana, and others, and by examining shifting state welfare policies and the politics of international NGO development—speaks directly to the changing politics of class in postsocialist countries.
On the surface, there has been an apparent increase in social spending in recent years. During 2005, public wages were increased by the Yushchenko administration (especially those of state employees, which increased 57 percent), and social welfare spending was ratcheted up by as much as 73 percent (Kuzio 2005). In February 2006, President Yushchenko boasted that during his tenure real income had increased by 20 percent, wages had gone up by 34 percent, and pensions and the minimum wage increased.