By Jaklin Kornfilt
Turkish is spoken through approximately fifty million humans in Turkey and is the co-official language of Cyprus. when Turkish has a few houses which are just like these of different Turkic languages, it has specified and engaging features that are given complete assurance during this ebook. Jaklin Kornfilt presents a wealth of examples drawn from diverse degrees of vocabulary: modern and outdated, legitimate and colloquial. they're followed through a close grammatical research and English translation.
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Additional resources for Turkish (Descriptive Grammars)
Acc. sg. "I heard that Ahmet went to the movies" (113) b. kim -in sinema-ya git-tig -m -i duy -du -n? who-Gen. cinema-Oat. -Acc. sg. -Oat. Chom;ky-Gen. -Acc. "Ahmet sold the students Chomsky's book" (114) a. (114) kim -in kitab-m -1 b. -Oat. who-Gen. -Acc. " Accusative direct object: (115) a. -Acc. visit do-Past "Ahmet visited his mother" (115) b. Ahmet kim -i ziyaret et -ti? Ahmet who -Acc. " Dative indirect object: (116) a. Ahmet kitab-l alUle -sin -e ver -di Ahmet book-Ace. -Dat. give -Past "Ahmet gave the book to his mother" sat -h sell-Past sat -h?
1. 2. 2. 1. 3. Various constituents of noun phrases can be questioned Determiners: Numerals: (71) Hasan diin ka~ bardak ~arap i\ -ti? " Syntax 17 Deictics: (72) Hasan diin hangi hz-l a dans -et -ti? " Possessors in possessive NPs: (73) kim -in baba -51 tevkif ed-il -di? sg. " Modifiers: (74) Hasan naSH bir kitap oku -du? " Heads: The ability to question heads of NPs is heavily restricted. e. those heads that are followed by morphology that expresses agreement with the possessor: (75) bina -run nere -si ylk -11 -d1?
Hasan who -Acc. movies-Dat. Prog. Same translation as for (48). 0pt. sg. -Acc. sat -h? " The only exception to the statement made earlier in this section, namely that all elements of a subordinate clause can be questioned with a WHword, is the Indo-European type of subordination, borrowed into the language from Persian (cf. section 1. ). Syntax 13 No matrix question can be formed by replacing any constituent of such subordinate clauses, as illustrated by the examples below, where a variety of embedded constituents are replaced by WH-words; note that in all of these examples, the WH-word is to be construed with the embedded verb.