Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment by Hisham Mortada

By Hisham Mortada

Written with the non-Muslim reader in brain, this booklet analyzes the foundations and values verified via the culture of Islam to control the social and actual environments of Muslims.

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23 Another secondary source of fiqh is various forms of ijtihåd known as qiyås, istiªsån, and isti‚laª. Qiyås is reasoning by analogy in its widest sense. In Arabic, qiyås literally means measuring or comparing. According to recent research on the Islamic planning principles by Besim Hakim, qiyås is the use of human reason in the elaboration of law. 24 Thus, qiyås is a form of ijtihåd. It is also the methodology by which the principles established by the Qur’an, sunnah and consensus are to be extended and applied to the solution of problems not expressly regulated therein.

728/1328), clarified that people’s acts are of two types: (a) acts of worship, by which their (people’s) religion is established, and (b) customary practices, which are required for day-to-day living. According to shari¯‘ah, ‘acts of worship are those acts which have been prescribed by Allah or approved by Him’. These acts are religious duties the Muslim must comply with. ) concerning people and necessary for daily life. ’32 The ruling of lawful or ªalål and prohibited or ªaråm is the right of Allah alone.

A Qur’anic verse says, ‘And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them. And He has put love and mercy between your (hearts)’ (Qur’an, Su. 30:21). K. 22 Like any other social institution, the family can survive only if the roles within it are clearly recognised and strictly followed. Many of these rules rest upon two principles: strong family ties and extended family. Strong family ties Islam devotes much attention to the issues related to the relationships between the family members.

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