Thinkers and Theories in Ethics by Brian Duignan

By Brian Duignan

Views on ethical habit and moral motion are wide-ranging, and infrequently contain divergent criteria and ways that produce ambiguous conclusionsyet we nonetheless arrive at universals. Echoes of Enlightenment and historic Greek pondering resonate throughout the modern day, and numerous thinkers have tailored an analogous rules to reply to rising social, cultural, political, and technological advancements and new ethical dilemmas. This quantity surveys the most important theories that shape the root of moral suggestion. Sidebars and distinct pictures make clear the vacillating international of ethics, and spotlight the participants whose seminal works confront a few of our so much basic human issues.

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History of Epicureanism Epicurus is remarkable for his systematic spirit and the unity that he tried to give to every part of philosophy. In this respect, he was greatly influenced by the philosophy and teachings of Aristotle—taking over the essentials of his doctrines and pursuing the problems that he posed. In the Middle Ages Epicurus was known through Cicero and the polemics of the Church Fathers. To be an Epicurean at the time of the Italian poet and philosopher Dante (1265–1321) meant to be one who denied Providence and the immortality of the soul.

Because his master, Panaetius, was chiefly concerned with concepts of duty and obligation, it was his studies that served as a model for the De officiis (44 BCE) of Cicero. Hecaton, another of Panaetius’s students and an active Stoic philosopher, also stressed similar ethical themes. Panaetius and Poseidonius were chiefly responsible for the widespread popularity of Stoicism in Rome. 21 7 Thinkers and Theories in Ethics 7 Bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c.

And utilitarians have believed in the possibility and the desirability of progressive social change through peaceful political processes. With different factual assumptions, however, utilitarian arguments can lead to different conclusions. If the inquirer assumes that a strong government is required to check humans’ basically selfish interests and that any change may threaten the stability of the political order, he may be led by utilitarian arguments to an authoritarian or conservative position.

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