The Seminoles of Florida by James W. Covington

By James W. Covington

"The so much complete account of the background of the Florida Seminoles but undertaken."--John ok. Mahon, writer of History of the second one Seminole War The heritage of the Seminole Indians in Florida embodies an essential component of the tragic heritage of local and white American clash through the complete usa. Drawing on largely scattered scholarship, together with the oldest files and lately stumbled on fabric, Covington provides us a whole account of the Florida Seminoles from their front into the nation virtually 300 years in the past, throughout the nice chiefdoms of Micanopy, Osceola, and Billy Bowlegs, to the present political truth of democratic elections. (In truth one girl, Betty Mae Jumper, was once elected tribal chairperson in either 1967 and 1969.) After stepping into the peninsula from Georgia and Alabama, the Seminoles fought 3 wars opposed to the whites. through 1858, on the finish of the ultimate struggle, ninety percentage of the tribe have been killed or forcibly got rid of to Oklahoma. those that remained in chickees within the swampy grassland of south Florida comprised one of many final tribes within the kingdom to preserve cultural independence from whites. With the drainage of the Everglades and extension of highways and railroads into the realm, the land the Indians lived on with out criminal identify turned best genuine property, and the Seminoles have been evicted via the hot white vendors. Covington brings the historical past of the tribe into this century as he describes the start of Seminole relocation to reservations, their participation in international struggle II, the inroads of Christianity within the Forties, and the adjustments in tribal schooling, govt, and agriculture and company ventures some time past 3 a long time.

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The Final War, 18551858 128 8. Early Contacts and Establishment of a Reservation 145 9. Missionary Efforts and New Federal Reservations 165 10. Lucien A. Spencer and His Work, 19131931 177 11. Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations 201 12. The New Deal, World War II, and the Advance of Christianity 219 13. The Reservation Indians 233 Page vi 14. The Miccosukee and Trail Indians 257 Epilogue 273 Appendix A. Seminole Census, 1913 275 Appendix B. Superintendents and Agents for the Federal Seminole Agency 289 Appendix C.

24 At the annual Green Corn Dance those who had committed crimes faced charges. Some who tried to escape punishment were sometimes captured and brought back. No one was confined, but some who committed adultery were disfigured or beaten, and others were excluded from ceremonies and rituals until they demonstrated that they had been rehabilitated by the shaman. 25 Division of labor between the sexes was similar to that of other American Indians of the southeast. 26 Men made implements of war, built houses and canoes, hunted, traded, and took part in the wars.

William Bartram relates in detail the travels of one of these Lower Creek bands, the Oconee, led by Cowkeeper. According to the story told to Bartram, Cowkeeper's band had settled along the Oconee River in Georgia but, because of the proximity of frontier settlements, had migrated to the lands held by the Upper Creeks. Unhappy with this location, they decided to move southeast toward the Atlantic Ocean. En route they saw the plains and the lake at Alachua Prairie and there built the town known as Alachua or Latchaway.

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