By Margaret A. Oppenheimer
The infamous lifestyles and instances of 1 of the wealthiest ladies in 19th-century America
Born into grinding poverty, Eliza Jumel was once raised in a brothel, indentured as a servant, and constrained to a workhouse while her mom used to be in prison. but via the top of her lifestyles, “Madame Jumel” was once one of many richest ladies in big apple, with servants of her personal and mansions in ny and Saratoga Springs. in the course of her awesome lifestyles, she obtained a fortune from her first husband, a French service provider, and nearly misplaced it to her moment, the infamous vice chairman Aaron Burr. Divorcing Burr amid lurid fees of adultery, Jumel lived on triumphantly to the age of ninety, astutely handling her estate and public character. After her dying, whereas family extolled her virtues, claimants to her property painted a distinct photograph: of a prostitute, the mummy of George Washington’s illegitimate son, and a spouse who ruthlessly defrauded her husband and even perhaps plotted his demise. With this booklet, writer Margaret A. Oppenheimer attracts from archival records and court docket filings, many untouched because the 1800s, to inform the genuine and whole tale of Eliza Jumel.
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These include the feeling of resentment among the speakers of the non-selected languages, and the non-motivation of the target population to become literate in non-prestigious languages, as was the case in Nigeria (Okezie, 1975), and in Gambia (The British Council, 1978). The transitional stage experience UNESCO’s language experts encouraged the teaching of literacy in mother tongue to adults, especially in cases where it is different from the official language, and suggested that once literacy is achieved in the mother tongue, the learners should be encouraged to read in a major language or in one that particularly interests them.
Among the reported problems are: the lack of a writing system, the problem of the script, the difference between the written and spoken forms of the language, the plenitude of mother tongues, cost, the non-availability of instructors and textbooks, to name but a few. UNESCO recommends that these problems should be studied carefully in order to come up with the best choices for particular situations. Still other problems emanated from the learners. These include the feeling of resentment among the speakers of the non-selected languages, and the non-motivation of the target population to become literate in non-prestigious languages, as was the case in Nigeria (Okezie, 1975), and in Gambia (The British Council, 1978).
A “high literate” can perform these tasks but with “little difficulty” and less errors. This classification of learners according to their literacy levels gives a be understanding of the literacy levels of a nation. For example, rather than simply classifying people into literates versus non-literates, it shows the literacy levels they are functioning at. In addition, it can be very useful as an assessment means for literacy programs and teachers as these latter can use them in designing both placement and proficiency tests to determine the literacy levels of their target population both before and after the literacy course and assess its efficiency in examining the learners’ progress from one category to another.