By Caroline Black
A realistic resource of reference on each point of the enterprise written through a profitable PR expert, essentially laid out and choked with priceless checklists, counsel and methods, indications and necessary summaries.
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A realistic resource of reference on each point of the enterprise written by way of a profitable PR specialist, basically laid out and filled with worthy checklists, counsel and strategies, symptoms and necessary summaries.
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Competitors must be required to use their judgement. • Entries must be fairly judged. • Draws are allowed in certain cases. Ethical and legal issues for the public relations practitioner c h a p t e r f o u r Raffles • Check local by-laws. • Print the name and address of the organiser on tickets sold to the general public. Sales promotions • Defamation Get advice and information from the Institute of Sales Promotion. PR is a competitive business and your organisation wants more favourable coverage than your competitor.
One thing is for certain – public relations is here to stay. the formation of a campaigning group (The Sons of Liberty), staged events (the Boston Tea Party), symbols (the Liberty tree) and slogans (‘Taxation without representation is tyranny’) A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s c h a p t e r ᮣ 1665 • ᮣ ᮣ Steam powered cylinder press first used to print The Times in London 1820-30s • 1821– Manchester Guardian founded (renamed The Guardian in 1959) • Rise of democracy in the US and use of media to convey political messages • 1837 – ABC Telegraph invented by Cooke and Wheatstone • 1837 – Northern Star (Leeds) regional paper launched 1840 • ᮣ British Treasury appointed its first press spokesman 1814 • ᮣ The Times, founded as the Daily Universal Register 1809 • ᮣ Yorkshire Post launched 1785 • ᮣ Publication of first periodical other than a newspaper – Journal des Scavans 1754 • ᮣ t w o First postage stamps – Rowland Hill 1850s • Information campaigns enticing settlers from the East to the West coast of America including Burlington Railroad’s campaign of 1858 • 1851– Invention of plate camera • 1854 – Post Office recognises the necessity to explain services to the public • 1855 – Daily Telegraph founded 15 A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s c h a p t e r ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ 16 t w o 1870s • 1870 – Invention of the typewriter • 1876 – Invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell 1890s • 1894 – Marconi sends first radio waves • 1896 – Launch of Daily Mail 1910s • 1911 – Air mail adopted • 1912 – Lloyd George organises a team of lecturers to explain the first pension scheme for the elderly • ‘Your country needs you’ poster campaign • 1918 – Launch of the Express 1920s • 1920 – First radio station Pittsburgh, USA • 23 February 1922 – first edition of Good Housekeeping • Crystal sets to listen to radio broadcasts • 1926 – Empire marketing board campaign to promote fruits and other products imported from the British Empire • 1926 – John Logie Baird demonstrates television for the first time • 1926 – Royal Charter awarded to the British Broadcasting Corporation 1930s • Valve radios • 1936 – First television broadcasts from Alexandra Palace,North London • 1938 – Invention of the ball-point pen and photocopier • Development of all-electronic television A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s c h a p t e r ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ t w o 1940s • Wartime propaganda using radio and educational campaigns using posters and print • 1943 – Invention of circuit board • Concept of the mobile phone appears • 1946 – Invention of the computer • 1947 – Invention of the transistor • 1948 – Institute of Public Relations (UK) and Public Relations Society (USA) formed 1950s • Many women’s magazines launched • 1950 – Diner’s Club – first credit card • 1953 – First colour television broadcast • 1955 – Commercial TV launched in the UK • 1954 – First transistor radio built • 1956 – First video recorder • 1959 – Invention of microchip 1960s • 1962 – First communication satellite • 1963 – First cassette recorder • 1964 – First word processor • Development of the Internet by the Pentagon 1970s • 1974 – Invention of the bar code • 1978 – First personal computer • 1979 – Sony walkman • Internet developed • Mobile phones begin to appear 17 A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s c h a p t e r ᮣ ᮣ ᮣ 1980s • 1980 – Post-it notes appeared • 1982 – First smart card and CD player 1990s • 1990 – Videophone • World Wide Web developed by European scientists • Voice recognition software for PCs • Mobile phone saturation in UK 21st Century • 18 t w o 11 September 2001 – Terrorist attacks in the US – instant news across the globe chapter three The public relations practitioner Introduction Qualities and skills Personal qualities of the effective public relations practitioner Professional and business skills for the effective public relations practitioner In-house and consultancy Ways into the business Qualifications, training and Continuing Professional Development It’s all in a day Looking after yourself Checklist T h e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i t i o n e r c h a p t e r Introduction t h r e e Public relations is a highly competitive business,hard to break into and hard work when you get there.
The main relationship requiring a contract is that between client and consultancy. But other relationships will require contracts too – for example,with a third party who is sponsoring one of your projects,a photographer who is responsible for your photo-library or a new media specialist who is designing your website. Contracts should cover: • Terms and conditions – related to the programme of work • Scope of the contract – the detailed plan of action with milestones and timelines (not carved in stone!