By Ricardo Camargo
This publication bargains a brand new ideology critique for political research through revisiting Habermas through a Žižekian interpreting. The e-book contains an software of the speculation to the case of the political consensus reached in Chile's post-Pinochet.
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Extra resources for The New Critique of Ideology: Lessons from Post-Pinochet Chile
Furthermore, Critical Theory, following the views of Marx and Weber, agrees on giving an initial positive role to the emergence of capitalism in the cultural sphere, as long as it allows the replacement of an obscurantist society with a more rational one. A further legacy of Marx is the assumption adopted by the Critical Theory school that affirms that the capitalist system, despite freeing men from the old chains of the medieval society, brings new shackles in the form of exploitation – by the bourgeoisie – of the working class, who are now obligated to sell their own labor force to survive.
Indeed, for Marx, to produce a critique of ideology it is no longer necessary to ascend to the reign of episteme or to go deeper into the introspective innate condition of individual rationality – as the classical epistemology has asserted – but rather, simply to situate himself within the historical material conditions – the social practices – that give rise to true (total and transparent) and ideological (partial and inverted) forms of consciousness. It is at last a shift from individual to collective rationality, which, however, is still inscribed within the illustrated framework of reason.
The richness of this approach is that it does not assume ideology to be an external static construct in relation to human actions but directly as a product of human activity. The Classic Debate on the Theory of Ideology 29 Furthermore, the positive perspective is able to realize that these frameworks of interpretation, as long as they are created by people, are also historically contingent and can compete with each other to be ‘the best ideology’ in relation to those wants, needs and interests that they are supposed to satisfy.