The laboratory Xenopus sp by SHERRIL L.. GREEN

By SHERRIL L.. GREEN

Vital organic FeaturesIntroductionHabitat and GeographyBehaviorAnatomic and Physiologic FeaturesGeneral FeaturesIntegumentSensoryGastrointestinal and ExcretoryReproductionRespiratoryCardiovascularThermoregulationLongevityAestivationReferencesHusbandryIntroductionMacroenvironmentMicroenvironmentHousing structures and Water SourcesStatic/Closed SystemsFlow-Through SystemsModular/Recirculating SystemsFiltration Read more...

summary: vital organic FeaturesIntroductionHabitat and GeographyBehaviorAnatomic and Physiologic FeaturesGeneral FeaturesIntegumentSensoryGastrointestinal and ExcretoryReproductionRespiratoryCardiovascularThermoregulationLongevityAestivationReferencesHusbandryIntroductionMacroenvironmentMicroenvironmentHousing structures and Water SourcesStatic/Closed SystemsFlow-Through SystemsModular/Recirculating SystemsFiltration platforms and UV Water Sanitation SystemsMechanical FiltrationBiological FiltrationChemical FiltrationUltraviolet SterilizationWater QualityPhAlkalinityTemperatureConductivityHardnessAmm

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New York: Oxford University Press. Taylor, E. W. and Y. M. Ihmied. 1995. Vagal and adrenergic tone on the heart of Xenopus laevis at different temperatures. J. Therm. Biol. 20(1–2):55–59. Tinsley, R. , C. Loumont, and H. R. Kobel. 1996. Geographical distribution and ecology. In The biology of Xenopus, ed. R. C. Tinsley and H. R. Kobel, 35–60. New York: Oxford University Press. Tinsley, R. C. and M. J. McCoid. 1996. Feral populations of Xenopus outside of Africa. In The biology of Xenopus, ed. R.

Tropicalis. • Most laboratory Xenopus laevis are housed in water temperatures ranging from 21° to 22°C, and laboratory X. tropicalis are typically maintained in water temperature at 24° ± 1°C. • In a 1998 survey, most facilities reported keeping X. laevis at 21° ± 1°C, and most reported having to actively heat the water with thermostatic heaters to maintain constant temperatures (Major and Wassersug 1998). It is important not to place heaters directly into the tank where the frogs are housed as the animals tend to congregate around and beneath submerged heaters and can be burned.

Xenopus can tolerate much higher levels of ammonia than can fish; however, high ammonia levels in the water are stressful, can inhibit ammonia excretion, and can cause Xenopus to switch to ureotelic excretion (an excretion method that requires more energy). High ammonia levels will also adversely affect developing Xenopus embryos. 02 mg/L. • Elevated water ammonia levels in Xenopus housing systems can be managed by water changes and by ensuring a healthy biological filter. , Chalfont, PA), AmGuard™ (Seachem Laboratories, Madison, GA), Ammonia DeTox™ (Tetra Werke, Melle, Germany)—can be used to assist.

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