The Highway of Despair: Critical Theory After Hegel (New by Robyn Marasco

By Robyn Marasco

Hegel's "highway of despair," brought in his Phenomenology of Spirit, represents the tortured course traveled through "natural consciousness" on its technique to freedom. depression, the passionate residue of Hegelian critique, additionally shows fugitive possibilities for freedom and preserves the main of desire opposed to all wish. studying the works of an eclectic solid of thinkers, Robyn Marasco considers the dynamism of melancholy as a serious ardour, reckoning with the types of historic lifestyles solid alongside Hegel's highway.

The street of depression follows Theodor Adorno, Georges Bataille, and Frantz Fanon as they each one learn, withstand, and reconfigure a strand of inspiration in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Confronting the twentieth-century cave in of a undeniable innovative dialectic, those thinkers fight to revalue serious philosophy and recast Left Hegelianism in the contexts of genocidal racism, international warfare, and colonial domination. every one philosopher additionally re-centers the position of ardour in critique. Arguing opposed to more moderen developments in severe idea that promise an break out from melancholy, Marasco exhibits how ardour frustrates the resolutions of cause and religion. Embracing the extremism of what Marx, within the spirit of Hegel, known as the "ruthless critique of every thing existing," she affirms the modern buy of radical severe thought, leading to a passionate method of political idea.

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In order to effect the common, material world— and to survive—laborers are therefore indebted to what Smith calls “a master [who] advances them the materials of their work and their wages and maintenance till it be completed” (1976, 82, Bk VIII). Marx will want to lift the modern means of production, combinations of workers, and division of labor from the exploitive mode of production through which they were historically constituted. Much of Marx’s later work is an attempt to work out how this can be accomplished.

As we shall see, for Marx, the new themes that challenge the bourgeois model of Locke and Smith arise alongside it rather than fully displacing it and totally eliminating the critique of capitalism from the standpoint of labor. Feuerbach: alienation and the gods Thus, alienation is both an economic and a political concept. It is also a theological concept. For Marx, the gods are a projected version of the human essence: myths that stand over and dominate their actual creators. As we have seen, Marx derives this strain of his thinking from Ludwig Feuerbach, a left Hegelian whose break from Hegel’s absolute idealism occurred through an anthropological critique of Christianity.

16 John Locke and Adam Smith: objectification, alienation, property, and tools In John Locke’s theory of property, property is something I make by mixing my labor with some unowned natural substance. This making is founded in a still more primary property, the property of the body. Locke writes, [E]very Man has a Property in his own Person. This no Body has any Right to but himself. The Labour of his Body, and the Work of his Hands, we may say, are properly his. Whatsoever then he removes out of the State that Nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his Labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his Property.

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