The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

By U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between maternal active smoking and fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Congenital Malformations, Infant Mortality, and Child Physical and Cognitive Development 9. The evidence is inadequate to infer the presence or absence of a causal relationship between maternal smoking and congenital malformations in general. 10. The evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship between maternal smoking and oral clefts.

B. Evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship. C. Evidence is inadequate to infer the presence or absence of a causal relationship (which encompasses evidence that is sparse, of poor quality, or conflicting). Evidence is suggestive of no causal relationship. For this report, the summary conclusions regarding causality are expressed in this four-level classification. Use of these classifications should not constrain the process of causal inference, but rather bring consistency across chapters and reports, and greater clarity as to what the final conclusions are actually saying.

Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002a;51(29): 642–5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC). asp>; accessed: October 14, 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2003;52(40): 953–6. Cornfield J, Haenszel W, Hammond EC, Lilienfeld AM, Shimkin MB, Wynder EL. Smoking and lung cancer: recent evidence and a discussion of some questions.

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