The Ethics of Risk: Ethical Analysis in an Uncertain World by S. Hansson

By S. Hansson

While is it morally applicable to show others to threat? such a lot ethical philosophers have had little or no to assert in resolution to that query, yet here's a ethical thinker who places it on the centre of his investigations.

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46 The approach with a probability limit can also be applied to rights: Probability limit for rights-based theories: Each moral right that a certain action not be performed is associated with a probability limit. The right extends to a mixture that contains the action if and only if the action has, in that mixture, a probability that is above the probability limit. However, as Nozick observed, such a solution is not credible since probability limits ‘cannot be utilized by a tradition which holds that stealing a penny or a pin or anything from someone violates his rights.

The need for exception clauses is even greater for ‘weak’ rules such as obligations to be polite and to obey minor traffic rules. Each such rule would have to contain exception clauses covering all the situations in which stronger rules in the system would invalidate it. 37 Due to the unpredictability of human life, it is impossible to foresee all the types of situations that can justify exceptions to a rule of obligation. Therefore Conflict-free specification is impossible to apply in practice.

Indeed, many rights have a correlative obligation. You have a right that I do not puncture your bicycle tyres. I have an obligation not to puncture your bicycle tyres. The right and the obligation express the same moral relationship, only seen from the perspectives of different persons. However, although many rights have a correlative obligation, this is not true of all of them. 40 One of these is the categorical permissions, permissions that hold without any triggering performative action. For instance, Aunt Edna may, if she so wishes, bequeath everything that she owns to the Cat Lovers’ Animal Welfare Society.

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