By Jürgen Schultz
This abundantly illustrated e-book presents a primary advent to the ecological zones of the geosphere. The revised version contains greater than 70 new figures and tables, plus targeted maps of agricultural areas and soil type. a lot of new Anglo-American ecological reviews are incorporated, in addition to a dialogue of the correlation among northern ecosystems and the carbon dioxide stability within the international atmosphere.
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Extra resources for The ecozones of the world : the ecological divisions of the geosphere
0 75 FC = Field capacity, PWP = Permanent wilting point Water content = mean value of all horizons in root area 1 mm soil water equals 1 volume% water in a 1 decimeter thick soil layer In a sandy soil layer only 70 mm precipitation can be stored in the root area if the PWP is taken as a base value; using the ﬁeld capacity, 100 mm are required. Larger quantities than these do not beneﬁt the plant growth. The water in this type of soil is used up rapidly so that precipitation events must occur at relatively short intervals.
In dry regions it can be assumed that all precipitation is evaporated where it falls and can be equated with the total mean annual precipitation and termed rain use efﬁciency (RUE) of primary production. Water use efﬁciency increases with the actual evapotranspiration (Et). 0 g m−2 of dry matter per mm of Et (Fig. 9). The increase in production with increasing Et relates to the supply of water to the plant cover. With a larger supply, the vegetation is taller and denser. Also, as the availability of water increases, the proportion of the evaporation that takes place at the soil surface, unused by plants, declines.
Durisols are characterized by duricrusts or nodules of silcrete. They appear as Xerosols on the FAO-UNESCO maps. Umbrisols are humus rich soils with a base saturation of less than 50%, in contrast to the humus rich steppe soils which have a higher base saturation. Umbrisols occur mainly in the Boreal zone. 28 Soils 2 Soil Classiﬁcation FAO Classiﬁcationa/ Major soil groupings Characteristics US Soil Taxonomy and Classic soil groups 1 Fluvisols Young soils in ﬂuvial deposits (ﬂood plains) undeveloped proﬁles Entisols: Fluvents Alluvial soils Gleysols Soils inﬂuenced by high water table (hydromorphic soils), not on ﬂood plains.