By Bruce G. Trigger, Wilcomb E. Washburn
This e-book presents the 1st entire heritage of the local Peoples of North the USA from their arrival within the western hemisphere to the current. It describes how local Peoples have handled the environmental variety of North the US and feature answered to the several ecu colonial regimes and nationwide governments that experience tested themselves in fresh centuries. It additionally examines the improvement of a pan-Indian identification because the 19th century and gives a comparability now not present in different histories of the way local Peoples have fared in Canada and the U.S..
Read Online or Download The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume 1, Part 2: North America PDF
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Extra resources for The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume 1, Part 2: North America
Marital restrictions were altered; for example, after the 1849 cholera epidemic, the Cheyennes relaxed rules of band exogamy. Health-related rituals were introduced or elaborated. And villages that were once autonomous combined their remnants into new polities. Most were related groups who spoke the same or similar languages; others, like the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras maintained separate sections within the same village. '3 The villagers' struggle to defend themselves against the Sioux and against Native groups from the East who were being displaced there by the westward movement of American settlers affected political organization.
The Sioux also drove the buffalo away from the Arikara villages, so that the Arikaras had to rely on them for a supply of meat. When the Arikaras refused to trade corn and horses for an unfair rate of exchange, the Sioux raided their villages and stole what they wanted, killing villagers in the process. Until 1780 villagers vigorously opposed Sioux incursions. The Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara villages were very large and well fortified. The Omahas were well armed and blocked the Sioux advance south of the middle Missouri River.
Teton groups contested the Plains between the Missouri River and the Black Hills, an area occupied or frequented by Kiowas, Crows, Arapahos, and Cheyennes. By 1825 Teton groups had driven the Kiowas south of the Black Hills. The Crows were pushed west to the Powder and Yellowstone Rivers. The Cheyennes had long been at odds with the Sioux, for they had defied them by continuing to bring horses to the villages on the Upper Missouri. Nonetheless, they and the Arapahos formed an alliance with the Teton groups and together dominated the central uplands area until the 1870s.