By N S Trahair; et al
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Extra info for The behaviour and design of steel structures to EC3
For EC3, these classifications are made on the basis of the chemical composition and the heat treatment, and so the yield stresses in each classification decrease as the greatest thickness of the rolled section or plate increases. The minimum yield stress of a particular steel is determined from the results of a number of standard tension tests. There is a significant scatter in these results because of small variations in the local composition, heat treatment, amount of working, thickness, and the rate of testing, and this scatter closely follows a normal distribution curve.
4). 6) i>1 where implies ‘the combined effect of’, γG and γQ are partial factors for the persistent G and variable Q actions, and ψ0 is a combination factor. 5 0 0 thus to use all the persistent actions Gk,j such as self-weight and fixed equipment with a leading variable action Qk,1 such as imposed, snow, or wind load, and reduced values of the other variable actions Qk,i . More information on the Eurocode approach to loading for steel structures is given in [39–41]. 1. 5 QW . in which the minus signs indicate that the permanent action is favourable.
Weld details should also be determined Introduction 13 with this in mind, and unnecessary ‘stress-raisers’ should be avoided. It will also be advantageous to restrict, where practicable, the locations of joints to low stress regions such as at points of contraflexure or near the neutral axis. Further information and guidance on fatigue design are given in [30–33]. 3 Brittle fracture under impact load Structural steel does not always exhibit a ductile behaviour, and under some circumstances a sudden and catastrophic fracture may occur, even though the nominal tensile stresses are low.