The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary by D. B. Grigg

By D. B. Grigg

This publication is set the current features and distribution of the key agricultural structures of the realm - moving cultivation, rainy rice cultivation, pastoral nomadism, Mediterranean agriculture, combined farming, dairying, plantations, ranching and large-scale grain construction. partially One a few significant sessions and approaches that have affected sleek agriculture are mentioned. bankruptcy 2 bargains with the origins and early diffusion of agriculture and its importance for the current. bankruptcy three offers with the following diffusion of plants and cattle, relatively because the discovery of the hot international, and bankruptcy four with the impact upon agriculture of industrialisation and urbanisation seeing that 1850. partially of the publication a few description of every form of agriculture is given. however it is the author’s trust that there will be no enough account of the current personality of global agriculture with no recourse to the evolution of agricultural platforms. hence each one bankruptcy partially is an essay at the old improvement of every of the key platforms

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This has been allowed for in Table 2. From this it can be seen that South West Asia is the home of crops which occupy a third of present-day world cropland, Latin America a little over a fifth, and Africa south of the Sahara rather less than a fifth. No other region has made a major contribution. The same table shows the origin of the crops in each major region. South West and South East Asia rely most upon indigenous crops, owing 24 Tropic ofCancer I 2a 2b 3 China India and Burma Indo—Malaya Central Asia Near East Mediterranean Ethiopia South Mexico and Central America Qa South America (Peru, Ecuador.

However it arrived, the greater yam is still a major crop but has been overtaken by manioc. Manioc was the principal food crop in Brazil when the Portuguese arrived in the sixteenth century and it probably reached Africa on slave ships. It was grown on the island of Sao Tome in the late sixteenth century, and was known on the mainland by the early seventeenth century. But it spread slowly, partly because it was poisonous unless properly prepared. It is possible that freed Brazilian slaves brought South American methods of preparation to West Africa in the late eighteenth century.

Two years later Cabral made the voyage to India via Brazil. In a period of quite remarkable expansion the Portuguese seized Malacca in 1511, reached the spice islands of the Moluccas in 1513, and Canton in the same year. Thus a regular sailing route linked Europe, Brazil, South Africa, India, the East Indies and China. The Spanish conquest of the Americas began with Columbus'firstvoyage to Cuba and Hispaniola. In 1509 the mainland was first settled at Darien in the isthmus of Panama, by 1521 the Aztecs had been overthrown by Cortez and by 1535 Pizarro had conquered the Incas of Peru.

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