Synaptic Plasticity and the Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease by Marianne Renner, Antoine Triller (auth.), Dennis J. Selkoe,

By Marianne Renner, Antoine Triller (auth.), Dennis J. Selkoe, Antoine Triller, Yves Christen (eds.)

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Extra resources for Synaptic Plasticity and the Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease

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1996). Based on experiments expressing recombinant AMPAR subunits in hippocampal neurons, it has been shown that GluR2/GluR3 hetero-tetramers continuously cycle in and out of synapses in a manner largely independent from synaptic activity (Passafaro et al. 2001; Shi et al. 2001). This process (constitutive pathway) preserves the total number of receptors at synapses; therefore, it has been proposed to help maintain synaptic strength in the face of protein turnover (Malinow et al. 2000). This constitutive cycling is very fast (half-time of minutes) and requires a direct interaction between GluR2 and NSF (Nishimune et al.

Ultrastructural reconstruction of previously imaged spines and boutons using serial section electron microscopy showed that new spines slowly form synapses. New spines that persisted for a few days always had synapses, whereas very young spines often lacked synapses. New synapses were predominantly found on large, multisynapse boutons, suggesting that spine growth is followed by synapse formation, preferentially on existing boutons. Altogether our data indicate that novel sensory experience drives the stabilization of new spines on subclasses of cortical neurons and promotes the formation of new synapses.

Ju W, Morishita W, Tsui J, Gaietta G, Deerinck TJ, Adams SR, Garner CC, Tsien RY, Ellisman MH, Malenka RC (2004) Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic synthesis and trafficking of AMPA receptors. Nature Neurosci 7:244–253. Kato AS, Zhou W, Milstein AD, Knierman MD, Siuda ER, Dotzlaf JE, Yu H, Hale JE, Nisenbaum ES, Nicoll RA, Bredt DS (2007) New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, gamma-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 27:4969–4977. Katz LC, Shatz CJ (1996) Synaptic activity and the construction of cortical circuits.

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