Structures and their Functions in Usan by Ger P. Reesink

By Ger P. Reesink

Usan is a Papuan language. during this monograph at the grammatical buildings of Usan and their functionality the writer exhibits the original beneficial properties of this language: how audio system can make the most definite rules for communicative reasons, how the language displays their actual atmosphere. strong point can in basic terms be proven within the context of communality with different languages. This monograph bargains various events to monitor similarities and adjustments among Usan and different language, those who should be known as Papuan particularly.

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However, in both these languages, the DS medial verbs are morphologically indistinguishable from final verbs. This means that DS medial verbs are affixed for tense and subject person-number as final verbs are. Usan also represents schema (9). It is typologically similar to Finisterre-Huon languages in this respect. The SS medial forms have endings that vary only according to the verb conjugation. The DS medial forms indicate person-number of the subject of the medial verb. The medial subject affixes differ considerably from the affixes on final verbs: second and third person are neutralized and their forms are totally different (cf.

It indicates whether the subject of the following clause is coreferential (SS for Same Subject) or not (DS for Different Subject) to the subject of the clause in which the medial verb functions as predicate. There are languages in which the medial verb also indicates some temporal relationship between two consecutive clauses. It does not seem possible to point to common factors in the morphology of medial verbs as they appear in the TNG phylum languages. Among the Highlands languages, the most frequent pattern of the medial verb structure may be given as: (8) verb stem + medial morpheme + anticipatory subject The medial morpheme may be 0 if the subjects of the consecutive clauses are coreferential.

The minimal word form consists of a single vowel. Open syllables may occur in any position in the word. Closed syllables, with a few exceptions (see below), are restricted to word final position. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. tain 'father'; bour 'sugar cane species' muor 'pandanus species' It should be noticed that sequences of three vowels very rare. g. in igoais 'pronged arrow'. Based upon these monosyllabic word patterns, we can represent the canonical word form of Usan as: (23) {(C) V (V)} (n) (C) (V) V (V) (C) The superscript to the initial syllable in (2 3) indicates that an indeterminate number of these structures may occur before a word final syllable.

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