By Jarol B. Manheim
Details and impression campaigns are a very cogent instance of the wider phenomenon we now time period strategic political conversation. If we predict of political communique as encompassing the production, distribution, keep watch over, use, processing and results of data as a political source, then we will be able to signify strategic political conversation because the useful administration of such info to accomplish a acknowledged target according to the technology of person, organizational, and governmental decision-making. IICs are roughly centralized, hugely dependent, systematic, and punctiliously controlled efforts to just do that. method in details and impact Campaigns units out in complete aspect the underlying assumptions, unifying method, and panoply of strategies of the IIC, either from the viewpoint of the protagonist who initiates the motion and from that of the objective who needs to shield opposed to it. Jarol Manheim’s forward-looking, wide, and systematic research is a must have source for students and scholars of political and strategic verbal exchange, in addition to practitioners in either the private and non-private sectors.
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Extra resources for Strategy in Information and Influence Campaigns: How Policy Advocates, Social Movements, Insurgent Groups, Corporations, Governments and Others Get What They Want
6 A Battle of Co-Equals For our purposes, power is best understood to be situational rather than absolute. Regardless of their absolute levels of power, all actors are likely to find themselves in specific situations in which others, including their targets or antagonists, have power greater than or equal to their own. As a result, those who might be targets in one setting may be campaigners in another. Consider, for example, the political competition between two more or less equally powerful package-delivery companies, FedEx and UPS.
Information and Influence Campaigns 31 This economic imperative is accompanied by a far more subtle, but no less important, political one. The fact is, the news media—and let’s take again here as a point of reference, albeit a momentary one, the United States—occupy a highly privileged social position. They are granted access to influential persons and institutions that are, effectively, off limits to individual citizens. They are granted credence. They are granted monopoly, or near monopoly, access to such valuable public resources as the broadcast spectrum.
It is through the medium of strategy that we will bring together the diversity of campaign decisions, actions, applications, and outcomes into a single, more or less unified argument about the campaign phenomenon per se. In general, a campaign strategy is an overarching directional framework for action, a concept or idea that integrates the many diverse parts of the campaign into a more or less unified whole. It is the ideational tapestry that weaves together, and makes sense of, the tactics through which the campaign is implemented.