Speech Motor Control. Proceedings of an International by International Symposium on Speech Motor Control (1981 :

By International Symposium on Speech Motor Control (1981 : Wenner-Gren Center), Sten Grillner

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Additional info for Speech Motor Control. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Speech Motor Control, Held at the Wenner–Gren Center, Stockholm, May 11 and 12, 1981

Example text

In this paradigm, monkeys were required to grasp a handle and maintain it in a certain position for 2 to 4 sec prior to the triggering perturbation of the handle. A white lamp signaled a correct holding position. An instruction (actually a red or green lamp, with red meaning "get ready to pull" and green meaning "get ready to push") was introduced during the holding period. This instruction told the monkey how to respond to a perturbation of the handle that would occur subsequently. 0 sec prior to the onset of handle perturb­ ation.

Note that the sign of this response to afferent input corresponds to the requirements of negative feedback. The unit was maximally activated when an instruction to push was triggered by an opposing displacement that moved the arm toward the monkey, and the cell was silenced when an instruction to pull was paired with a perturbation that moved the arm away from the monkey. In this neuron the reflex response evoked by the excitatory perturbation was enhanced after the excitatory instruction, just as the tendon jerk of the muscle shown in figure 5 was enhanced after an instruction calling for activation of the muscle.

V. -. i t i on A: movement Figure 1. Reflex arc as a feedback control system. (A) Block diagram for a feedback control system. (B) Neuronal connection for the stretch reflex. I a , group I a muscle afferent neuron. (C) That for the vestibulospinal reflex. PV, primary vestibular neuron. VN f vestibular nuclei cell. VE, vestibular efferent cell. (From Ito, 1974). controller A ]f -^ input output process oculomotor neuron vestibular organ eye Figure 2. Reflex arc as a feedforward control system. (A) Block diagram for a feedforward control system.

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