By Nisikawa Usio, Tadashi Miyashita
With a spotlight on environmentally pleasant rice farming, this exact e-book integrates either atmosphere and human dimensions of ecological recovery to supply options to advertise sustainable agriculture and rural improvement. Paddy fields have a number of services past their function of manufacturing rice: They function shelter habitats for a variety of flora and fauna that when inhabited floodplain wetlands and include a couple of targeted and threatened aquatic species. additionally they offer quite a few surroundings prone for nearby groups akin to water retention, erosion keep an eye on, flood regulate, fish tradition, and academic possibilities. besides the fact that, rice paddies are threatened all over the world as a result of modernization of agriculture and abandonment of farmland brought on by depopulation and the getting older of rural groups. accordingly, a number of ecological and sociological facets has to be thought of within the ecological recovery of paddy fields. This ebook goals to take action by means of incorporating numerous disciplines of normal and social sciences. techniques for sustainable agriculture are reviewed, together with monetary incentives for farmers and using flagship flora and fauna species comparable to the crested ibis (toki) to advertise ecological recovery. With the expanding approval for environmentally pleasant rice farming in elements of Asia and the western usa, this publication bargains version situations for sustainable administration of paddy-dominated landscapes.
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Extra info for Social-Ecological Restoration in Paddy-Dominated Landscapes
Studies have been conducted to increase understanding on the relationships between environmental factors affecting paddy fields and species distribution and abundance (Kano et al. 2010; Yoshio et al. 2009). Regular human activities, such as farmland and water management, required for rice cultivation creates a unique habitat that fosters the diversity of species. JSSA reported that Satoyama and Satoumi have undergone significant changes over the past 50 years. These changes have caused a decline in the resiliency of the coupled socio-ecological production systems and their ability to provide a sustainable supply of ecosystem services.
Paddy fields in and around Satoyama are often those on the mountain slopes as terraced paddies or in the valleys between hills and uplands (Azuma 2003). In response to the problems of lower productivity in areas where landforms hinder mechanization, the Japanese government has implemented farmland improvement projects (FIPs) in which farmland is readjusted to maximize production. For example, several small plots may be physically merged and reshaped into one large plot. Moreover, farmland may be consolidated by amalgamating previously dispersed parcels of farmland through plot exchanges among farmers (Arimoto 2011).
Upland Rice Ecosystem Upland rice is grown under dry land conditions without irrigation or puddling. Such areas encompass from low-lying valley bottoms to undulating and steep sloping lands. In Southeast Asia, shifting cultivation was the dominant practice in mountainous areas during the latter half of the twentieth century (Fox and Vogler 2005). In these areas, rice is primarily grown as a subsistence crop. Although it accounts for 13 % of global rice production areas, upland rice contributes only 4 % to global rice production because rice cultivation by this method is constrained by weeds, minimal rainfall, and poor soil fertility (Maclean et al.