By Prof. Sadao Mori, Dr. Howard G. Barth (auth.)
Although measurement exclusion chromatography (SEC) is likely to be the preferred and standard approach for deciding on the molecular weight distribution of polymeric fabrics, there were only a few texts written in this subject. prior to now decade, SEC has skilled a large amount of progress in regard to column and detector expertise and new functions. With those advances, SEC can now be used for deciding upon absolute molecular weight, polymer chain conformation and measurement, and branching, in addition to polymer answer houses. This publication introduces the reader to the basics of SEC with emphasis on useful features of the method, corresponding to column and cellular choice, calibration, new detector features and directions for appearing SEC on such a lot varieties of polymers, particularly these of business value. This e-book is meant for both these new to the sector of SEC, or for these learn employees who require a extra complete background.
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Additional info for Size Exclusion Chromatography
Thus, as expected, the longer the column, the greater is the peak spreading. The magnitude of HETP is dependent on a number of factors including the particle diameter of the packing, the linear velocity of the mobile phase, how well a column is packed, and the diffusion coefficient of the polymer in the mobile phase. As compared to HPLC of small molecules, the diffusion coefficients of macromolecules are about 10 2 times smaller, which will be reflected in increased peak broadening. 25) Assuming a Gaussian peak shape, the standard deviation 0 is equal to w/4, where w is the peak width in volume units, that is, w = wtF.
The Waters 150C ALC/GPC and PL-GPC21O can also be used for high-temperature SEC (see next section). 2 High-Temperature SEC Systems 33 incorporate an injector, columns, a column oven and a refractive index detector. Although the Shodex GPC System-ll and System-21, Toso HLC-8020 and PL-GPC 110 have a column oven and can control the column temperature up to 99°C (for PL-GPC11O up to 110 DC), they can only be used for samples which are soluble in a solvent used as a mobile phase at room temperature, because the connecting tubing between the column and the detector and between the detector and the waste reservoir are not maintained at the same column temperature.
E. minimum slope, the pore volume should be as large as possible. This effect can be best explained using Fig. 9 . Here we see calibration curves from a single column (Fig. 6 ml per decade of MW. The two-column set has twice the selectivity or 40% higher resolution (see Eq. 28)). As discussed in the following section, the third requirement for optimum resolution is column efficiency. 9. 2 Peak Broadening As a polymer elutes through a column, it will be fractionated on the basis of molecular size by the SEC process.