Sinkholes and Subsidence: Karst and Cavernous Rocks in by Dr Tony Waltham, Professor Fred G. Bell, Martin G. Culshaw

By Dr Tony Waltham, Professor Fred G. Bell, Martin G. Culshaw (auth.)

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Additional info for Sinkholes and Subsidence: Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction

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4. Three dissolutionally opened ®ssures, one with a sediment-®lled cave on it, exposed in a 30-m length of cut face on the new motorway from Postojna to Trieste across the highly cavernous limestone of the Kras in Slovenia. TW. Sec. 3 Karst landforms development by dissolution 9 readily sealed by modest amounts of masonry or concrete placed during excavation; these are small enough to create no major problems, but they do demand proper treatment and they cannot be ignored. In many limestone karsts, the ground may be 96±98% sound rock with a safe bearing capacity of 2±4 MPa, but the other 2±4% may be open voids with a bearing capacity of zero.

Contrasting types of karst landscape (a) Well-developed alpine glaciokarst on the French side of the high PyreÂneÂes, with dark grassy ¯oors in solution sinkholes; the larger depression has some small subsidence sinkholes in its soil ¯oor. ; it was last occupied by a perennial stream under periglacial conditions during the late Pleistocene. (c) Shallow sinkholes across the lowland polygonal doline karst of Kentucky's Sinkhole Plain. (d) The extensive series of conical hills and intervening dolines in the forest-covered fengcong karst of the Cockpit Country in northern Jamaica.

Marbles are metamorphosed limestones, generally strong and also prone to erosion into cavernous karst. Limestones are polygenetic. Some are of mechanical origin representing carbonate detritus that has been transported and deposited or has accumulated in situ; these include the chalks. Others represent chemical or biochemical precipitates, or organic deposits such as coral limestone that have formed in place. Biological or biochemical processes dominate in the production of carbonate detritus, that mostly originates as shell debris.

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