Short-Range Wireless Communications: Fundamentals of RF by Alan Bensky

By Alan Bensky

Short-range instant - communications over distances of below a hundred meters - is the main speedily becoming phase of RF/wireless engineering. Alan Bensky is an the world over famous professional in short-range instant, and this re-creation of his bestselling e-book is totally revised to hide the most recent advancements during this fast-moving box.

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Additional info for Short-Range Wireless Communications: Fundamentals of RF System Design and Application

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This is usually harder to achieve for receivers than for transmitters. Many short-range applications call for intermittent transmitter operation, in security systems, for example. Transmitters can be kept in a very lowcurrent standby status until data needs to be sent. The receiver, on the other hand, usually doesn’t know when data will be sent so it must be alert all the time. Even so, there are techniques to reduce the receiver duty cycle so that it doesn’t draw full current all the time. Another way to reduce receiver power consumption is to operate it in a reduced power standby mode, wherein operation goes to normal when the beginning of a signal is detected.

Distance 40 60 Path Gain 80 100 120 140 160 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Distance Open Field Free Space Exp. = 6 Figure 2-5: Path Gain open field distance of 300 meters, the path gain is –83 dB. The distance on the curve with exponent n = 6 that gives the same path gain is 34 meters. Thus, a wireless system that has an outdoor range of 300 meters may be effective only over a range of 34 meters, on the average, in an indoor installation. The use of an empirically derived relative path loss exponent gives an estimate for average range, but fluctuations around this value should be expected.

Table 2-1. Path Loss Exponents for Different Environments [Gibson, p. 8 In building — obstructed 4–6 As an example of the use of the path gain exponent, let’s assume the open field range of a security system transmitter and receiver is 300 meters. What range can we expect for their installation in a building? 5 meters, polarization is vertical, and the frequency is 915 MHz. The reference distance is 10 meters, and for all three curves the path gain at 10 meters is taken to be that of free space.

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