Saussure's Third Course of Lectures on General Linguistics by Ferdinand De Saussure, E. Komatsu, R. Harris

By Ferdinand De Saussure, E. Komatsu, R. Harris

The notes taken by means of Saussure's scholar Emile Constantin weren't on hand to the editors of the printed "Cours de Linguistique Generale" (1916), and got here to mild basically after global warfare II. they've got by no means been released of their entirety. The 3rd and final process lectures, of which Constantin stored this very complete list, is mostly thought of to symbolize a extra complicated model of Saussure's educating than the sooner . it's transparent that Constantin's notebooks supply a textual content which differs in a couple of major respects from the "Cours" released through Saussure's unique editors, and produce ahead principles which don't emerge within the 1916 book. They represent particular facts about the ultimate levels of Saussure's brooding about language. This version of the notes is followed by way of an creation and a whole English translation of the textual content. there was no test made by means of Komatsu and Harris to show the English into readable prose. Constantin's notes, while revised through their writer, hold the infelicities, repetitions, abruptness - sometimes incoherences - that betray the situations in their starting place. the amount constitutes a big landmark crucial documentation for all students and libraries focusing on the topic. it may be of curiosity to students, historians and linguists attracted to the heritage of contemporary linguistics

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En Bretagne <(française)>, on parle le français et le breton. Dans la région basque: le basque, l'espagnol, le français. En Finlande: le suédois, et finnois, puis le russe. En Courlande et Livonie: le russe, l'allemand et le letton (les colons allemands arrivés au moyen âge sous les auspices de la ligue hanséatique). En Lithuanie: le lithuanien, le polonais et la russe. Dans la province prussienne de Posnanie, on parle polonais et allemand. Notebook I 16a often not borne out by the facts. This reality at least deserves a mention, although it will be legitimate to ignore it in the following chapter, as in the previous one.

Souvent la coexistence des langues reste plus ou moins localisée, répartie sur territoire, par exemple entre ville et campagne. Mais la localisation pas toujours nette. Quelquefois concurrence pas amenée par peuple plus fort; ainsi on voit des populations nomades élire domicile dans un pays. Ainsi les Tziganes sont fixés particulièrement en Hongrie et forment villages compacts. Or c'est une population de l'Inde, venue on ne sait quand. C'est un cas en dehors de conquête et colonisation.

2) Autre observation. Si la langue se donne tout de suite comme une chose géographiquement diverse, ne doit-on pas la considérer comme ethniquement diverse? Cette question est très complexe. L'idée de race a cette différence constatée dans le parler. Sans doute on pourrait aller au-delà de la diversité géographique, mais les rapports entre la langue et l'ethnisme sont beaucoup plus complexes. Dès qu'il est question de la langue comme caractère de race, nous faisons intervenir le principe de variation dans le temps ou de relative résistance à la variation dans le temps; ce n'est que par la persistance de la langue qu'elle peut être plus ou moins un caractère de race.

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