By Xilin Lu
Retrofitting of creating buildings, together with upkeep, rehabilitation, and strengthening, isn't just a tremendous factor in city building and administration, but in addition a common challenge to structural engineers in estate administration disciplines. in response to the individuals’ hands-on event, Retrofitting layout of establishing Structures covers structural retrofitting practices, the elemental rules of structural research and layout, and numerous innovatively-used structural codes for the layout, evaluate, and retrofitting of establishing constructions utilizing newly-developed applied sciences worldwide.
Beginning with the method of structural retrofitting, this ebook steadily introduces the importance of structural retrofitting; the inspection tools for structural fabrics, structural deformation, and damages; retrofitting layout equipment and development specifications of assorted structural platforms; and useful examples of structural retrofitting layout and building. within the advent of assorted examples, it emphasizes not just conceptual layout, but in addition constructional approach layout, in order that a structural retrofitting layout paintings could be accomplished through either structural research and specific constructional measures. The publication offers an entire source for skilled execs in addition to academics and scholars.
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Extra resources for Retrofitting Design of Building Structures
The principle of this method is as follows: contact the transmitting probe (electric-acoustic transducer) and receiving probe (acoustic-electric transducer), which consists of piezoelectric elements, to the concrete surface; then the transmitting probe transmits ultrasonic wave, and the receiving probe will receive it; the location of rebar and cover thickness can be detected according to the acoustic parameters of the receiving ultrasonic wave. 2. 5 shows the methods and instruments of inspection of the location of rebar and cover thickness by using nondestructive techniques.
In general, excessively thin webs and insuﬃcient web reinforcements as well as lower concrete strength are responsible for inclined cracks of thin webbed girders. On account of brittle shear failure, retroﬁt of thin web girder should be done as soon as possible particularly if the inclined cracks are getting wider. d. Due to durability deﬁciency, corrosion and rupture of reinforcements generally happen and thereby reduce bearing capacity of the members. A T-shaped beam bridge situated in Fenghua Bridge, Ningbo City was originally built in 1935.
11 the tested slab Water loading mode. Dial indicator or displacement meter is always used to measure the deﬂection, and the dial indicator is the mechanical displacement meter. At present, electric displacement meter used M]MJSGI Chapter 2 Inspection and Evaluation of Building Structures 27 in static load tests has advantages such as it has a wide range, allows reading and measuring from a long distance, recording automatically, and directly transmitting the result signal into the computer to perform the data collecting and processing, all of which make the measurement convenient.