Research Design Explained, 7th Edition by Mark L. Mitchell, Janina M. Jolley

By Mark L. Mitchell, Janina M. Jolley

Psychology scholars; examine execs.

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To convince people that your advice is sound, you must understand the foundation supporting those facts—the research process—so well that you can make others understand it. We have just discussed the scenario in which psychology has a prepackaged, fact-based solution to a problem, and your task is to sell that solution. But what if, as is usually the case, psychological science has not yet unearthed a solution that has been applied to the particular problem? That’s when you really need to understand research methods because you will need to use research to find an answer.

6. If you want to make yourself feel better, do charity work. 7. IQ tests predict life success better than tests of emotional intelligence. 8. Married couples’ understanding of each other declines over the course of marriage. 9. Nonverbal communication is not very helpful in letting people know what other people are thinking. 10. Psychotherapy, especially grief counseling, counseling for multiple personality disorder, and counseling to prevent posttraumatic stress syndrome, can be harmful. All of these findings are refinements of the common sense of a few years ago.

Experts are not always unbiased—many are influenced by the groups paying them (Kolata, 2007; Peterson, 2008; Tavris & Aronson, 2007). Experts often give conflicting advice. The more confident the expert, the less accurate the expert’s predictions are (Tetlock, 2005). Quote/Example ● ● Einstein uncritically accepted Freud; Linus Pauling (a two-time Nobel Prize winner) overstated the benefits of Vitamin C. “It is absurd, as well as arrogant, to pretend that acquiring a PhD somehow immunizes me from the errors of sampling, perception, recording, retention, retrieval, and inference to which the human mind is subject” (Paul Meehl, as cited in Stanovich, 2007, p.

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