By D. L. Stocum (auth.), Ellen Heber-Katz Ph.D. (eds.)
In this factor of Current issues in Microbiology and Immunology the authors current a distinct variety of examples of the regenerative reaction and the position of stem cells from the amphibian to human. apparently all roads result in cells that experience the plasticity to turn into anything else, not just within the amphibian but in addition within the mammal.
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Additional info for Regeneration: Stem Cells and Beyond
It might act as a competence factor. Alternatively, FGF-2 might playa role in keeping blastema cells in an undifferentiated state by regulating the expression of transcription factors such as msx-1 or the expression of ECM molecules such as hyaluronate, fibronectin, and tenascin. Or, FGF-2 might playa role in both the acquisition of competence and maintenance of the dedifferentiated state. The same-function hypothesis could explain the fact that dependence on the nerve for regeneration arises during the digital stages of limb development, when the limb bud is becoming heavily innervated.
A newt neuregulin gene was cloned from spinal cord and was shown to be expressed in newt dorsal root ganglia (Wang et al. 2000). However, the secretion of neither FGF-2 nor GGF-2 into the blastema has been demonstrated, nor have the other two criteria for mitogen status been satisfied by these growth factors. The neurotransmitter is substance P, a peptide widely distributed throughout the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system that is mitogenic for mammalian connective tissue cells (Nilsson et al.
In either case, distal cells would be juxtaposed to proximal cells, evoking intercalary regeneration of intermediate positional identities. Amphibian Regeneration and Stem Cells 43 Notophthalmus viridescens (Nv)Tbox 1, a member of the T-box family of genes, is expressed in the mesenchyme of adult newt forelimb regeneration blastemas exclusively, suggesting that it, too, plays a role in specifying limb identity (Simon et al. 1997). Expression of NvTbox1 is twofold higher in proximal vs. distal forelimb blastemas and RA increases expression of the gene twofold in distal blastemas, suggesting that it has a role in specifying PD positional identity as well (Simon et al.