Proto-Wintun (University of California Publications by Alice Shepherd

By Alice Shepherd

This quantity represents a reconstruction of Proto-Wintun, the father or mother language of a bunch of California Indian languages. It contains a grammatical caricature of Proto-Wintun, cognate units with reconstructions and an index to the reconstructions. The e-book fulfills a necessity for in-depth reconstructions of proto-languages for California Indian language households, either for theoretical reasons and deeper comparability with different proto- or pre-languages.

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It is possible that some of the “going to” examples in W and P are actually loan translations. ” The W indicative suffix -a·, and perhaps also its short allomorph -a, is probably the result of a merger of PW realis *-a·/-*a with *-§a, which P keeps separate. Perhaps the meeting point of P -§a, W -§a, and W and P -a, -a· must be placed earlier, in prePW. ” Examples of complete words are: *bal§a, tell a lie; *…’ep§a, be bad; *koyi§a, hurt, sick, want; *k’ilap§a, afraid, have fear; *k’ilap§ama, causing fear, frightfully, really; *qh asi·l§a, have impaired vision; *q’o(·)t§a, dirty; *yori§a, send after, direct to; *§a·q§a, be bitter; and possibly *§ut’a, after that (< *§uw, do/be at a distance + *-§a).

Is a subordinating suffix of causal or temporal anteriority. It is reconstructible in one complete word: *ba·r(o), eat(ing). The W reflex is -r, subordinating suffix of causal or temporal anteriority (often translated as “because”); the P reflex is -ro, which indicates related predicates sequential in time, or simultaneous predicates where one is background to the other. 9 *-ta is a subordinating suffix. ” The PCC reflex is -ta, participle (Whistler 1986) or continuative gerundial (Whistler 1980).

G, *-pel, dual). A single suffix is of the shape *-V·, the realis stem-deriving suffix *-a· (and possibly its allomorph *-e·), the long vowel pointing to an origin in the auxiliary *-§a, have (see below). All suffixes longer than a single V or a single C show more or less clear kinship with independent words, and many of the single V and single C suffixes do as well (see sets). 320. Vowel Alternations Although there is insufficient evidence to suggest a formal system of ablaut in PW, many reconstructions indicate either rudimentary or vestigial alternations of just about any two vowels.

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