Practical Radio Frequency Test and Measurement by Joseph Carr

By Joseph Carr

Explains the fundamentals of acting the checks and measurements utilized in fitting, proving the functionality, retaining, and troubleshooting radio-frequency structures. Carr, who has written prolifically on electronics and communications, comprises easy theories of measuring radio frequency in addition to attempt gear, set-ups, dimension tactics, and examining the implications. Engineers, technicians, novice radio buffs, or hobbyists may well locate the knowledge important.

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This line is called the pure resistance line and forms the reference for measurements made on the chart. 1 The SmithChart. 2 Pureresistanceline. 51 52 SMITH CHARTING THE RADIO FREQUENCYCIRCUIT The pure resistance line represents the situation where X - 0, and the impedance is therefore equal to the resistive component only. , Z o in transmission lines); for most microwave RF systems the system impedance is standardized at 50 f~. In order to normalize the actual impedance, divide it by the system impedance.

67 ohms, and for 75 ohm systems R -- 25 ohms. The resistors used in this circuit must be noninductive. This limits selection to carbon composition or metal film resistors. If higher power than 2-watts is needed, then each arm of the Y-network must be made from multiple resistors in series or parallel. 67 ohms and 25 ohms are not standard values, except perhaps in certain lines of 1% or less tolerance precision resistors. They can, however, be approximated using standard values. 67 ohms, and 27 ohms is used in place of 25 ohms.

Each quarter wavelength segment creates a 90 ~ phase shift, while the half wavelength produces a 180 ~ phase shift. When a quarter wavelength and half wavelength are combined, to form a three-quarter wavelength segment, the phase shift is 270 ~. 19 ' Rat-racecombiner/splitter. 2 Input Use 0~Splitter,--3 dB at Ports I and 2 180~Splitter, -3 dB, -90 ~at Port 1, and -270 ~ at Port 2 Port 3 Port 4 It is necessary to terminate all ports of the Rat-Race n e t w o r k in the system characteristic impedance, R o, w h e t h e r they are used or not.

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