By Mark A. Rees, Patrick C. Livingood, Professor Stephen Williams, Marvin D. Jeter, Douglas C. Wells, Tristram R. Kidder, Malcolm K. Shuman, Richard A. Weinstein, Virgil Roy Beasley III, Lori Roe, Ian W. Brown
Plaquemine, Louisiana, approximately 10 miles south of Baton Rouge at the banks of the Mississippi River, turns out an unassuming southern group for which to designate a whole tradition. Archaeological examine performed within the sector among 1938 and 1941, despite the fact that, published detailed cultural fabrics that supplied the foundation for distinguishing a special cultural manifestation within the decrease Mississippi Valley. Plaquemine used to be first mentioned within the archaeological literature by means of James Ford and Gordon Willey of their 1941 synthesis of japanese U.S. prehistory. decrease Valley researchers have for that reason grappled with the place to put this tradition within the neighborhood chronology according to its ceramics, earthen mounds, and habitations. Plaquemine cultural fabrics percentage a few features with different neighborhood cultures yet range considerably from Coles Creek and Mississippian cultures of the Southeast. Plaquemine has hence obtained the doubtful contrast of being outlined via the features it lacks, instead of by means of these it possesses. the present quantity brings jointly eleven prime students dedicated to laying off new mild on Plaquemine and delivering a clearer figuring out of its dating to different local American cultures. it's the first significant publication to in particular deal with the archaeology of Plaquemine societies. The authors supply a radical but targeted evaluation of prior study, contemporary revelations, and instructions for destiny examine. They current pertinent new facts on cultural variability and connections within the reduce Mississippi Valley and interpret the results for related cultures and cultural relationships. This quantity ultimately locations Plaquemine at the map, incontrovertibly demonstrating the accomplishments and significance of Plaquemine peoples within the lengthy historical past of local North the US.
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These include sherds classi¤ed as Carter Engraved, var. unspeci¤ed, Mazique Incised, var. Preston, and a few sherds of Baytown Plain, var. Addis. The radiocarbon dates from Mound B surface midden and the presence of some Preston phase ceramic markers indicate that Mound B was used during this culturally transitional phase. However, the ceramics from Mound B midden deposits do not resemble a typical Preston phase assemblage (see Kidder 1993a:75–109; Ryan 2004). The ceramic assem- 34 lori roe blage from Mound B is weighted toward the earlier Balmoral phase.
The scale of mound construction and landscaping at Raffman is far greater than expected for the petty chiefdoms thought to characterize the sociopolitical landscape of the Coles Creek period. Large Coles Creek sites like Raffman, and perhaps Mott (16FR11) as well (see Barker 1992:15, 42; Morgan 1999), may represent the centers of large hierarchically organized Coles Creek societies. The scale and arrangement of mound-and-plaza architecture at Raffman suggests an elite arena, physically separated from the community as a whole (Kidder 1998b).
D. 1200 will likewise require greater attention to both the scale and source of interactions. Turning the familiar homology upside down, if the cultural heirs of Coles Creek in the LMV were in fact informed of the imposing Mississippian polities upriver and to the east, what conditions and events, what actions would have entailed their being or remaining Plaquemine? As the following authors demonstrate, the dif¤cult work needed to answer these and other questions has just begun. Acknowledgments The chapters in this volume were originally presented in the symposium “Plaquemine Problems: Recent Investigations and Reappraisals” at the 60th annual meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 12–15, 2003.