Persian (Descriptive Grammars) by Lewis Gebhardt

By Lewis Gebhardt

Persian, or Farsi, is likely one of the world's oldest languages. courting again to the 6th century B.C., it really is spoken this present day through over 40 million humans in Iran and five million in Afghanistan. this can be the 1st entire grammar of Persian and gives special insurance of all its linguistic elements, together with the syntax, morphology and phonology.

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4). ’ < previous page page_22 next page > < previous page Page 23 Questioning the DO (91a) Questioning the IO (91b) page_23 next page > B: kif-o? ’ B: ru miz? ’ Questioning the VP (91c) B: kif-o ci kar--kærd-i? ’ Questioning the adverb (91d) B: ke kif-o gozošt-i ru miz? 3. 6 Questioning more than one element Any number of elements can be questioned in an echo question at the same time. ’ (92a) B: ke ba ki ci kar--mi-kon-i? ’ In the case of yes-no echo questions, separate elements cannot be questioned.

Previous page page_12 next page > < previous page page_13 next page > Page 13 (38) emruz, færiborz bæra-ye širin ci kar--kærd? ’ (39) emruz færiborz ci kar kærd? 2 Subordinate-clause constituents that can be questioned Subordinate clauses in Persian are all finite, either indicative or subjunctive, and may be preceded by the optional relative pronoun ke (that/which). Example (40) shows a subordinated clause in the indicative and (41) shows a subordinate clause in the subjunctive. The use of the subjunctive reflects desire or a degree of uncertainty.

Noun-Genitive (3) bæradær-e mæn brother-EZ me ‘my brother’ < previous page page_5 next page > < previous page Page 6 Noun-Adjective (4) page_6 next page > mašin-e now car-EZ new ‘(a) new car’ Preposition-Noun (5) tu hæyat in courtyard ‘in (the) courtyard’ Noun-Relative Clause (6) zæn-i ke dust--dar-æm woman-DEM that friend--have-1S ‘the woman that I love’ Demonstrative-Noun (7) in danešgah this university ‘this university’ When a prepositional phrase is present it typically occurs between the subject and the direct object.

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