By A. Hallam (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Patterns of Evolution as Illustrated by the Fossil Record
22: 225-261. Curiosities of Natural History. Richard Bentley, London, 362 pp. Buckland. , 1836. Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference t o Natural Theology. W. Pickering, London. B.. 1964. Dynamics in Metazoan Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 313 pp. , 1817. Essay o n t h e Theory of the Earth. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh (translated by R. Jameson). , 1859. The Origin of Species. John Murray, London, 490 pp. Darwin. F. and Seward. C. (Editors). 1903. More Letters of Charles Darwin. J o h n Murray, London.
VALENTINE Introduction The history of life reflects the realization of some of the evolutionary potentials of organisms in response to environmental opportunities. Both the potentials and the environment change with the passage of time, and the evolutionary patterns are thereby altered. The processes which permit evolution to occur are by no means completely understood. The very measurement of evolutionary activity is beset with grave difficulties; most investigators restrict themselves t o a single evolutionary aspect and devise a measure which is useful for their restricted purposes.
Absolute dating of the beds containing probable early metazoan fossils has proven difficult, for the beds are commonly not associated with rocks that are easily dated radiometrically. The problem is compounded by the difficulty of separating the traces of early animal activity from sedimentary structures that arise from inorganic causes (Cloud, 1973). We are therefore not yet sure of the precise sequence of events that these rocks display. y. y. old (Glaessner, 1969, 1971; Banks, 1970; Webby, 1970; Crimes, 1974).