By A. Josefsson, J. Johnsson, C.-O. Wene (auth.), Carlo Carraro, Alain Haurie (eds.)
The actions of the Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei conceal a huge spectrum of analysis issues, starting from economics to engineering, from environmen tal administration on the or local point to easy mathematical version ling examine. it's the blend of the actions on those final issues that led the Fondazione to organise, with the collage of Geneva, a piece store the place operation learn instruments have been designed with the purpose to supply nationwide and native coverage makers with applicable analytical and coverage instru ments for environmental administration. within the fresh previous, consciousness has frequently been dedicated to worldwide environmen tal concerns during which the extent of coverage making is both overseas, via multi-country agreements on emission keep an eye on, or nationwide, whilst environ psychological guidelines are designed to manage family pollutants. Many environ psychological difficulties, notwithstanding, have an area or local measurement. even if their size is worldwide, e. g. when it comes to the greenhouse gasoline impression, proper judgements on emission keep an eye on, similar to the adoption of power saving utilities, are taken on the neighborhood point. in lots of nations, the present laws imposes the neighborhood specialists to arrange plans and undertake measures to manage strength intake or to lessen waste of usual assets. it really is for that reason vital to research the way neighborhood or neighborhood professionals optimise their environmental management.
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Additional info for Operations Research and Environmental Management
Vos, H. and Wilde, D. (1984). "Energy after the eighties", Elsevier, Amsterdam. Vattenfall (1992). -O. and Ryden, B. (1988). "A comprehensive energy model in the municipal energy planning process", European Journal of Operational Research, 33:2, pp. 212-222. 3. MARKAL-Geneva: A model to assess energyenvironment choices for a Swiss canton * E. FRAGNIERE and A. HAURIEt Universite de Geneve 1. e" in Switzerland. The approach is based on the use of a standard energy systems analysis model called MARKAL (MARket ALlocation), which has been implemented in more than 16 countries, including Switzerland (see Abilock et al.
The utilisation of biomass in Study B is shown in Figure 8, which shows the results of six scenarios. The scenarios were: a) Base case - limited biomass resources. 08 SEKlkg CO 2 ), and no CO 2 -tax for electricity production. b) Unlimited Biomass - as the base case, but with no limits on the biomass supply. 50 SEKlkg CO2 , which is also levied on fuels for electricity production. 08 SEKlkg CO 2 , e) Expensive pellets - costs for refined bio-fuels, pellets and pulverized wood, are heavily increased f) CHP-Tax - similar to unlimited biomass, but with a tax on CHP-heat from fossil fuels.
As a tool for these analyses, the IEA-MARKAL model was used. , 1992). , 1992) showed clearly how the model could be used on a regional basis, and also indicated the importance of using reference groups (as described in Wene and Ryden, 1988) for this type of studies. 2. , 1980; Fishbone and Abilock, 1981). The energy demand is given exogenously, and the model optimizes the energy system to yield the minimum total system cost (system objective) using a real discount rate of 7% for the whole system.