Operateurs Maximaux Monotones: Et Semi-Groupes De by H. Brézis (Eds.)

By H. Brézis (Eds.)

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This would be difficult to achieve in English, but in French a literal translation actually strengthens the effect by turning assonance to rhyme (bouche / mouche). The Russian translation has to alter the meaning slightly to achieve the same effect: ‘into a mouth closed tight (glukho) fly no flies (mukha)’. In another case quoted by Fedorov (1953:173), the translator modified the original to achieve a phrase that is not actually a Russian idiom but a very convincing imitation of one: the French ‘empty barrels sing best’ becomes ‘an empty barrel rings more resoundingly’, which, according to Fedorov, “evokes the impression of a living phrasal combina38 Translation Techniques tion that could have existed in Russian”.

For decades the English language used the phrase both sides of industry, but Eurospeak has since introduced the social partners, and now economic commentators use Anglo-Saxon to mean English and American, These are all late calques from the French, proving that interlingual influence is a two-way street after all. Literal translation This is the rare but always welcome case when a text can go from one language into another with no changes other than those required by the target-language grammar.

The answer is that novice German translators are tricked by the spelling into thinking that hall means Halle (German for ‘hotel lobby’) and vicar means Vikar (German for ‘curate’). Zigzagging: Divergence and Convergence This set of trajections arises from different lexical structuring between languages that we discussed earlier, leading to the concept of one-to-many equivalence. The German word See Diverges into English sea or lake, while the German Wurst Diverges into sausage or turd. This again is a matter of language knowledge and important only to novice translators who have to learn to read the linguistic, situational and stylistic clues that will tell them the correct meaning.

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