By Torsten B. Moeller and Emil Reif
The major for any starting radiologist who needs to acknowledge pathological findings is to first gather a capability to differentiate them from basic ones. This striking advisor provides starting radiologists the instruments they should systematically technique and realize general MR and CT photos.
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4 cm b Transverse diameter 5−6 cm; craniocaudal diameter (= highest to lowest section) 8−13 cm c Transverse renal axis: posteriorly divergent angle of 120° d Width of renal cortex: 4−5 mm e Width of ureter: 4−7 mm Position of superior poles of kidneys: ț Right: superior border of L1 ț Left: inferior border of T12 bber Moeller, Normal Findings in CT and MRI © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. 39 40 CT: Abdomen Time to corticomedullary equilibrium: ț 1 minute Contrast excretion into the pyelocaliceal system: ț 3 minutes Gerota fascia (thickness): ț 1−2 mm Lymph nodes larger than 1 cm are suspicious for pathology.
The perirenal and pararenal spaces are unremarkable. Other visualized upper abdominal organs, especially the adrenal glands, show no abnormalities. Interpretation Both kidneys appear normal at CT. Checklist Kidneys blubberblu ț Anatomy: — Paired — Position (see below) — Size (see below) ț Organ contours: — Smooth and sharp ț Width of parenchyma ț Density (see below) ț Normal relation of cortex to medulla ț Renal pelves: — Structure and shape of caliceal groups — Bilateral symmetry — No expansion ț Ureters: — One per side — Course — Width (see below) — No obstruction ț Peri- and pararenal spaces: — Fat attenuation — No masses — No increase in soft-tissue structures — No fluid Moeller, Normal Findings in CT and MRI © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved.
There is no evidence of masses in the anterior, central, or posterior compartments. The hilar region on each side is unremarkable, and the main bronchi appear normal. The heart is orthotopic with normal configuration. The cardiac chambers are of normal size. Major intrathoracic vessels and imaged portions of the supra-aortic vessels are unremarkable. The thoracic skeleton and thoracic soft tissues show no abnormalities. Interpretation The thoracic organs appear normal at CT. , plaques or infiltrates) bber Moeller, Normal Findings in CT and MRI © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved.