Newnes Radio and RF Engineering Pocket Book, by Steve Winder

By Steve Winder

New fabric within the 3rd version comprises cellular base station antennas, operation of mobile networks, observed filters and ceramic resonators, modulation for stereo FM publicizes, ADPCM, and vocoders. *The crucial facts and knowledge for contemporary radio engineering at your fingertips *Based at the sensible knowhow of working towards engineers *Ideal for reference and revision

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In practice, because the current is not uniform, the effective length is less than the physical length and is given by: leff = lphys × Imean I where leff = effective length lphys = physical length I = current at feed point With an antenna which is short in comparison with a wavelength the current can be considered to vary linearly over its length and Imean = I /2. Because the apparent length of a vertical radiator is twice that of its physical dimension due to the mirror image formed below the ground, the effective length of an electrically short vertical antenna may be approximated to be its physical length.

The general situation is typically found at UHF and microwave frequencies. Because air density normally decreases with altitude, the top of a beam of radio waves typically travels slightly faster than the lower portion of the beam. As a result, those signals refract a small amount. Such propagation provides slightly longer surface distances than are normally expected from calculating the distance to the radio horizon. This phenomenon is called simple refraction, and is described by the K factor.

8 Impedance The impedance of an antenna is that presented to the feeder cable connecting it to the transmitter or receiver. It is the result of the vectorial addition of the inductive, capacitive and resistive elements of the antenna. Each resonant antenna possesses an impedance characteristic of the type, and when an antenna operates at its resonant frequency the reactive elements cancel out and the impedance becomes resistive. e. the series resistance of the conductors, the shunt resistance of the base material and losses in nearby objects, form the resistive portion of the impedance.

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