Modem Theory: An Introduction to Telecommunications by Richard E. Blahut

By Richard E. Blahut

On the middle of any glossy conversation process is the modem, connecting the knowledge resource to the communique channel. this primary path within the mathematical idea of modem layout introduces the idea of electronic modulation and coding that underpins the layout of electronic telecommunications structures. a close remedy of middle matters is equipped, together with baseband and passband modulation and demodulation, equalization, and series estimation. The modulation waveforms for conversation channels and electronic recording channels are taken care of in a typical atmosphere and with unified terminology. various extra complex subject matters is additionally lined, akin to trellis codes, rapid codes, the Viterbi set of rules, block codes, greatest probability and greatest posterior chance, iterative demodulation, and jamming. a variety of end-of-chapter workouts also are integrated to check the reader's figuring out all through. This insightful publication is perfect for senior undergraduate scholars learning electronic communications and is additionally an invaluable reference for practising engineers.

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A large bandwidth is needed to support the leading and trailing edges of the pulses. Accordingly, to transmit NRZ requires a large bandwidth in comparison to the data rate. This requirement is not acceptable in most modern communication systems. 3 Baseband waveforms for multilevel signaling Instead of modulating one bit at a time at each signaling instant T , as in antipodal signaling, one can modulate several bits at a time at each signaling instant. Thus in place of binary signaling, we shall introduce M-ary signaling.

The branches are also labeled with the channel bits to the right of the data bit labels. The sequence of channel bits on the path taken through the trellis forms the channel sequence. We shall examine many trellises in later chapters. 7 Binary orthogonal signaling at baseband A much different kind of binary signaling waveform can be defined that uses two different pulses to represent the two bit values. Two such pulses, s0 (t) and s1 (t), are called an orthogonal pair of pulses1 if they satisfy ∞ −∞ s0 (t)s1∗ (t)dt = 0.

If an error confusing these two points is made, it results in two bit errors. An alternative assignment is to use a Gray code ⎧ ⎪ −3A ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ −A a = ⎪ A ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3A if the if the if the if the th pair of data bits is 00 th pair of data bits is 01 th pair of data bits is 11 th pair of data bits is 10. Now a single symbol error rarely results in two bit errors. The use of a Gray code gives only a trivial performance improvement, but it does so for very little cost. The average energy per symbol of the signal constellation {c0 , c1 , .

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