By Jean-Loup Baer
This e-book supplies a entire description of the structure of microprocessors from basic in-order brief pipeline designs to out-of-order superscalars. It discusses issues equivalent to - the guidelines and mechanisms wanted for out-of-order processing akin to sign up renaming, reservation stations, and reorder buffers - optimizations for top functionality reminiscent of department predictors, guideline scheduling, and load-store speculations - layout offerings and improvements to tolerate latency within the cache hierarchy of unmarried and a number of processors - state of the art multithreading and multiprocessing emphasizing unmarried chip implementations themes are offered as conceptual rules, with metrics to evaluate the functionality impression, if acceptable, and examples of cognizance. The emphasis is on how issues paintings at a black field and algorithmic point. the writer additionally presents adequate aspect on the check in move point in order that readers can have fun with how layout beneficial properties increase functionality in addition to complexity.
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Extra info for Microprocessor Architecture: From Simple Pipelines to Chip Multiprocessors
Org/. A description of each benchmark in the 2006 CPU suite can be found in Henning [H06]. org/. 6. The latter is extracted from Romer et al. [RLVWWBBL96]. A special issue of IEEE Computer Magazine (February 2002) reports on four different execution-driven simulators, including SimpleScalar [ALE02], the one most often used in academia. com/. Sherwood et al. [SPHSC03] describe phase selection. shtml). EXERCISES 1. 2 indicating the maximum number of transistors put on an Intel Pentium chip in a given year.
North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988, 143–186 [PH04] D. Patterson and J. Hennessy, Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware/Software Interface, Third Edition, Morgan Kaufman Publishers, San Francisco, 2004 [RLVWWBBL96] T. Romer, D. Lee, G. Volker, A. Wolman, W. -L. Baer, B. Bershad, and H. Levy, “The Structure and Performance of Interpreters,” Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, Oct. 1996, 150–159 [S88] J. Smith, “Characterizing Computer Performance with a Single Number,” Communications of the ACM, 31, 10, Oct.
1) [PH04] Construct an example whereby two systems have the same MIPS rating but one of them has an EXCPU smaller than the other one. 11. 2) Illustrate Amdahl’s law in terms of speedup vs. sequential portion of program by showing the speedup for N = 8 processors when the sequential portion of the program grows from 1% to 25%. 12. 2 – Amdahl’s law) With sequential execution occurring 15% of the time: (a) What is the maximum speedup with an infinite number of processors? (b) How many processors are required to be within 20% of the maximum speedup?