By Alan Spry (Auth.)
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Extra info for Metamorphic Textures
Lineage in quartz was described by Frederickson (1955) and is shown in Plate l a ; a similar structure is conunon in galena. Grain Boundaries 35 All crystal structures are built up by the repetition of units like the bricks in a wall. These units may be sufficiently regular in some simple structures to fit together without distortion or gaps but the "bricks" in a complex rockforming silicate are so irregular that some misfit occurs between each. Addition of successive imits to a nucleus causes increased distortion and bending of the structiure until it is necessary for a defect to be produced before adding further units.
The grain boundary consists of a sheet of parallel edge dislocations of the same sign parallel to ^ ; D is large as long as 0 is less than about 5*^. The grain boundary has five degrees of freedom with regard to the crystal lattices of the adjacent grains. Three degrees of freedom due to possible rotations of the two lattices on the Τ and Ζ axes and two d ^ e e s of FIG. 6. Dislocation model of a low-angle boundary marked by edge dislocations of two kinds (after Read, 1953) freedom of orientation of the boundary siuface with respect to the crystals.
T h e total strain between the sheets depends on their lateral extent and produces a tubular structure in chrysotile. It is the basic reason why large crystals of clay or serpentine do not form. Despite the large surface area of an aggregate of clay particles and hence a large siuface free energy, this condition has lower energy than a large crystal in which there would have to be very large lattice strain energy. Surface Tension/Eiiergy Values The review of surface energy measurements of solids by Inman and Tipler (1963) is very useful and is mainly concerned with work since 1952; earlier work is covered by Shockley et al.