By Peter Muir
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The basic consultant to getting to know endoscopic strategies of the higher GI tract whereas technological advances have made endoscopy essentially the most universal approaches for reading the higher GI tract, studying find out how to maneuver the tools and interpret the pictures may be complex for these with no event.
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On the other hand, if both parents are affected heterozygotes (Fig. 4b), 75 % of the children will be affected (25 % homozygous, 50 % heterozygous) and 25 % will be healthy homozygotes. In the rare case when one parent is homozygous and affected with a hereditary autosomal dominant disease, while the other parent is healthy, all children will be heterozygotic carriers (Fig. 4c). Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Transmission Another type of dominant−recessive inheritance is autosomal recessive hereditary transmission.
Thus in families with a small number of children, autosomal recessive diseases occur only sporadically. If one parent is an affected homozygote and the other is a healthy homozygote, all the children will be healthy heterozygotes (Fig. 5c). Almost all metabolic defects that are caused the absence of an enzyme are transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. These include phenylketonuria (a congenital deficiency leading to mental retardation, see below), albinism (lack of tyrosine hydroxylase interferes with the metabolic pathway from tyrosine to the skin pigment melatonin), and cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis; thickened secretions from secretory glands lead to severe complications in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts).
Thus the constellation that usually creates hereditary transmission occurs when a heterozygous carrier of the disease pairs with a healthy partner. Consequently, for each child, independently of its sex, the probability of hereditary transmission of an autosomal dominant Faller, The Human Body © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. 48 2 Genetics and Evolution disease is 50 %. In this situation it does not matter which parent carries the affected dominant allele.