By Christy G Turner II
This learn of prehistoric violence, murder, and cannibalism explodes the parable that the Anasazi and different Southwest Indians have been basic, peaceable farmers. until eventually fairly lately, Southwest prehistory reviews have mostly ignored or missed proof of violent festival. Christy and Jacqueline Turner’s examine of prehistoric violence, murder, and cannibalism explodes the parable that the Anasazi and different Southwest Indians have been easy, peaceable farmers. utilizing specified osteological analyses and different strains of facts the Turners convey that conflict, violence, and their concomitant horrors have been as universal in the traditional Southwest as anyplace else on the earth. The designated characteristic of this vastly documented examine is its multi-regional overview of episodic human bones assemblages (scattered flooring deposits or charnel pits) by way of taphonomic research, which considers what occurs to bones from the time of dying to the time of restoration. through the prior thirty years, the authors and different analysts have pointed out a minimum perimortem taphonomic signature of burning, pot sharpening, anvil abrasions, bone breakage, lower marks, and lacking vertebrae that heavily fit the signatures of animal butchering and is often linked to extra facts of violence. greater than seventy-five archaeological sited containing numerous hundred people are conscientiously tested for the cannibalism signature. simply because this signature has no longer been said for any websites north of Mexico, except these within the Southwest, the authors additionally current distinct comparisons with Mesoamerican skeletal collections the place human sacrifice and cannibalism have been identified to were practiced. The authors overview a number of hypotheses for Southwest cannibalism: hunger, social pathology, and institutionalized violence and cannibalism. within the latter case, they current facts for a possible Mexican connection and reveal that the majority of the recognized cannibalized sequence can be found temporally and spatially close to Chaco nice homes.
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Extra resources for Man corn: cannibalism and violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest
Total whole bone and bone fragment count ranges between 400 and 3,500 elements in a given episode. Body reconstruction shows a high rate of unaccounted-for bone element loss. 4. All or most body segments are disarticulated. 5. Vertebrae are usually missing. 6. Massive perimortem breakage occurs in 40-100% of the skeletal elements. 7.
MexicoAntiquities. , 1934-1996. II. Title. Turner, September 21, 1934-February 13, 1996 Page ix Contents 1 Introduction: Studying Southwestern Cannibalism 1 2 Interpreting Human Bone Damage: Taphonomic, Ethnographic, and Archaeological Evidence 10 3 Taphonomic Evidence for Cannibalism and Violence in the American Southwest: Seventy-Six Sites 55 4 Comparative Evidence: Cannibalism and Human Body Processing in Mexico 415 5 Conclusion: Explaining Southwestern Cannibalism 459 Appendix 485 Acknowledgments 491 List of Figures 495 List of Tables 503 References Cited 507 Index to Sites 537 General Index 539 Page 1 1 Introduction: Studying Southwestern Cannibalism To find a thing you have to believe it to be possible.
We now know that the earliest empirically based, published claim for prehistoric Southwestern cannibalism was made in 1902 by the Smithsonian Institution anthropologist Walter Hough. D. 1000 and 1200. The earliest review of Southwestern cannibalism claims was made by Erik K. Reed (1949a), who did not include Hough's. D. 1100-1200 in Wupatki National Monument. In 1967 the senior author examined prehistoric teeth in the human skeletal collections at the Museum of Northern Arizona as part of a worldwide study of dental morphology.