Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution by Max K. Hecht, James L. Edwards (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Peter

By Max K. Hecht, James L. Edwards (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Peter C. Goody, Bessie M. Hecht (eds.)

This quantity is the results of a NATO complex examine Institute held in England at Kingswood corridor of place of dwelling, Royal Holloway university (London University), Surrey, over the last weeks of July, 1976. The ASI used to be equipped in the consultant strains laid down via the clinical Affairs department of the North Atlantic Treaty association. in the past twenty years, major advances were made in our figuring out of vertebrate evolution. the aim of the Institute used to be to offer the present prestige of our be aware of­ ledge of vertebrate evolution above the species point. because the subject material used to be evidently too extensive to be coated competently within the constrained time on hand, chosen subject matters, difficulties, and components that are acceptable to vertebrate zoology as an entire have been reviewed. this system used to be divided into 3 parts: (1) the idea and technique of phyletic inference and methods to the an­ alysis of macroevolutionary tendencies as utilized to vertebrates; (2) the appliance of those methodological rules and an­ alytical methods to diverse teams and buildings, specific­ ly in anatomy and paleontology; (3) the applying of those re­ sults to type. the fundamental rules thought of within the first quarter have been defined in lectures protecting the issues of personality research, practical morphology, karyological proof, biochemical proof, morphogenesis, and biogeography.

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Eldredge, N. M. ), pp. 82-115, Freeman, Cooper, San Francisco. Eldredge, N. , 1975, Evolutionary models, phylogenetic reconstruction, and another look at hominid phylogeny. Contrib. , 5:218-242. , 1964, Fossil vertebrates from the Late Cretaceous Lance Formation, eastern Wyoming, Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. , 49:l. , 1975, Lower Vertebrates from the Fort Union Formation, Late Paleocene, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming. Herpetologica 31: 365-385. , Hecht, M. , 1967, Paleocene amphibians from Cernay, France.

The use of poorly interpreted or unweighted characters and the universal indisciminant application of parsimony results in the failure to recognize parallelism. However, by use of our proposed character weighting system, it is possible to determine the level of confidence in a given phylogeny. The use of high weight characters in phylogeny also results in a more falsifiable scheme. All phylogenies should be continually tested by the analysis of new data such as newly discovered fossils and living organisms and experimental data such as biochemistry, karyology, and morphogenesis.

Breeding individuals lack gills (14-); breeding individuals perennibranchiate (14+). 14- + 14+. 15. Opisthotic fused into epiotic (15-); opisthotic separate (15+). 15- + 15+. M. K. HECHT AND J. L. EDWARDS 30 16+ 16. Fourth branchial arch present (16+) or absent (16-). 16-. -+ 17. No columellar process on squamosal bone (17-); columellar process on squamosal bone (17+). 17- 1 17+. 18. Jugularis branch of hyomandibular nerve passes below squamosal-columellar ligament (18-); jugularis branch of hyomandibu~ar nerve passes above squamosal-columellar ligament (18+).

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