By B.S. Rinkevichyus, O.A. Evtikhieva, I.L. Raskovskaya
This booklet describes the fundamental ideas of laser refractography, a versatile new diagnostic software for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography relies on electronic imaging and laptop processing of dependent laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous obvious media. Laser refractograms supply either qualitative and quantitative measurements and will be used for the research of quickly and temporary processes.
In this publication, the theoretical foundation of refractography is explored in a few element, and experimental setups are defined for dimension of obvious media utilizing both 2nd (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. particular examples and functions are mentioned, together with visualization of the boundary layer close to a sizzling or chilly metal ball in water, and commentary of part results and microlayers in drinks and gases.
As the 1st booklet to explain this new and interesting approach, this monograph has wide cross-disciplinary charm and should be of curiosity to scholars and researchers who have to represent advanced fluid behavior.
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It comprises three 4 3 x 2 1 z l0 l1 l2 a l3 y z L b Fig. 9â†œæ¸€ Optical system to form a low-divergence laser plane. a View in the xoz plane. b View in the yoz plane. 3 SLR Formation Based on Optical Elements 33 5 x 2 1 4 3 z a y z l b L Fig. 10â†œæ¸€ Triple-lens optical system for forming the laser plane. a View in the xoz plane. b View in the yoz plane. 1—laser; 2—spherical lens; 3 and 4—cylindrical lenses; 5—plane of observation lenses: a spherical lens forming a beam waist at a great distance l and two cylindrical lenses that form the laser plane proper.
The situation substantially changed with the advent of compact diffraction optical elements produced by computer optics techniques . It was precisely this circumstance, combined with the present-day achievements in the field of semiconductor lasers, computer technology, and digital image processing techniques , that gave the onset to the novel line of laser gradient refractometry, known as laser refractography. 16 presents refractograms of a boundary layer near a hot ball in a water, obtained using structured laser radiation in the form of a set of conical beams produced by means of DOE.
If l1â•›>>â•›R01â•›−â•›f, then w02â•›=â•›w01â•›fâ•›/(â•›â•›fâ•› + â•›l1). But one should bear in mind here that a beam waist less than 5Â€m in size is difficult to obtain because of the aberrations of the lens and the diffraction phenomenon. It frequently proves necessary to transform a Gaussian beam with a waist radius of w01 into a beam with a waist radius of w02 by means of a lens with a focal length of f. 11) , where f02â•›=â•›R01R02, and the signs in the formulas are the same. It should be noted here that such a transformation is only possible if fÂ€≥â•›f0.