By F. Kohlbacher
The potential of MNCs to create, move and mix wisdom from assorted destinations is a crucial determinant of company good fortune. This publication makes use of examples of knowledge-based organizations - Hewlett-Packard Consulting & Integration, Siemens, Mazda, and Maekawa - to teach that knowledge-based advertising and marketing is essential to a sustainable aggressive virtue.
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Additional info for International Marketing in the Network Economy: A Knowledge-Based Approach
These are the shared tacit knowledge which is built through shared, hands-on experiences among organizational members and customers, suppliers, or affiliated firms. Skills and know-how, acquired and accumulated through work experiences, are examples of experiential knowledge assets. Their tacitness makes them firm-specific and difficult-to-imitate resources that provide a sustainable competitive advantage to a firm. Conceptual knowledge assets. These are the explicit knowledge articulated through images, symbols, and language.
It has been influenced by the work of Penrose (1995) and - more generally - by the so-called resource-based view of the firm (for example, Acedo, Barroso, and Galan, 2006; Barney, 1991,2001; Peteraf, 1993; Wernerfelt, 1984, 1995). Indeed, Grant (1996b: 110) sees the knowledge-based view as 'an outgrowth of the resource-based view', a view that is also echoed by other scholars in the field (for example, Patriotta, 2003). The knowledge-based theory of the firm criticizes the resource-based view of the firm and tries to overcome the weaknesses of this approach: the resource-based view of the firm looks inside firms in terms of the resources they own (Nonaka, Toyama, and Nagata, 2000), and according to this view, a firm is a collection of resources, and those with superior resources will earn rents (for example, Barney, 1991,2001; Conner, 1991; Foss, 1997; Itami and Roehl, 1987; Mahoney and Pandian, 1992; Peteraf, 1993; Wernerfelt, 1984, 1995).
Therefore, knowledge management should not be limited to a function of merely collecting and documenting, but should rather actively utilize information as a resource, and process, prepare, and format it in such a way that it becomes relevant organizational knowledge. In order to distinguish between the narrow meaning of knowledge management as data and information management - and the broader and more comprehensive way of dealing with knowledge and knowledge assets in firms, I will use the term 'knowledge-based management' for the latter approach.