By Haldun Hadimioglu, David Kaeli, Jeffrey Kuskin, Ashwini Nanda, Josep Torrellas
Today, the extra fast expense of pace elevate in microprocessor expertise than in reminiscence has created a major reminiscence hole (or "wall") for machine designers and manufacturers.
Edited through top overseas experts within the box, excessive functionality reminiscence structures surveys advances in know-how, structure, and algorithms that deal with either scalability wishes in multiprocessors and the increasing hole among CPU/network and reminiscence speeds. the variety of methods defined the following deal with matters current on uni-processor structures in addition to on multi-processor platforms. present learn highlights from either and academia specialise in: coherence, synchronization, and allocation; power-awareness, reliability, and reconfigurability; software-based reminiscence tuning; structure layout matters; and workload issues.
Topics and features:
* Describes modern study appropriate to the transforming into disparity among CPU and reminiscence speed
* offers theoretical and useful techniques to the memory-wall challenge, together with a few from fresh world wide symposiums at the topic
* comprises particular suggestions to universal difficulties in numerous working environments
* deals a huge assessment of excessive functionality reminiscence structures, in addition to in-depth discussions of decide on, crucial areas
* encompasses a concise, thorough introductory bankruptcy concerning the field
This special and accomplished compendium assembles the paintings by way of best researchers and pros into features of bettering the memory-system functionality of general-purpose courses. it's superb for researchers and R&D execs with pursuits, or perform, in computing device engineering, computing device structure, reminiscence layout, and basic processor architecture.
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Additional resources for High Performance Memory Systems
1 Introduction Cache systems are designed to minimize the average access time for memory references. Uniprocessor cache misses can be classified into the three categories: conflict, compulsory, and capacity misses [Hil87]. The number of conflict misses can be reduced by a more associative cache or by the introduction of a victim cache [Jou90]. Larger cache lines and a number of prefetching algorithms have been proposed to reduce compulsory misses, while the conventional approach for reducing capacity misses is simply to increase the size of the cache - a brute force approach often enabled by a manufacturing process shrink.
T. Austin. DIVA: A Reliable Substrate for Deep-Submicron Processor Design. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. InProceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Microarchitecture, pp. 196~207, Dec. 1999. P. Sweazy and A. J. Smith, A Class of Compatible Cache Consistency Protocols and their Support by the IEEE Futurebus. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, pp. 414-423, June 1986. A. Cimatti, E. Clarke, F. Giunchiglia, and M. Roveri, NuSMV: A New Symbolic Model Verifier.
The modeled system consisted of 16 processors connected by a 200 MHz split-transaction address bus and a 16 byte full crossbar for routing data. Each processor had a 1 GHz, 4-way super scalar out-of-order core with split 64 kB 2-way set-associative L1 caches. Main memory latency incurs a 60 ns access time, not including network and arbitration delays. The cache controllers implement an optimized MOESI protocol modeled after the Gigaplane . In the interest of time, we removed the L2 caches and write-buffers from the simulated system.