High Performance Memory Systems by Haldun Hadimioglu, David Kaeli, Jeffrey Kuskin, Ashwini

By Haldun Hadimioglu, David Kaeli, Jeffrey Kuskin, Ashwini Nanda, Josep Torrellas

Today, the extra fast expense of pace elevate in microprocessor expertise than in reminiscence has created a major reminiscence hole (or "wall") for machine designers and manufacturers.

Edited through top overseas experts within the box, excessive functionality reminiscence structures surveys advances in know-how, structure, and algorithms that deal with either scalability wishes in multiprocessors and the increasing hole among CPU/network and reminiscence speeds. the variety of methods defined the following deal with matters current on uni-processor structures in addition to on multi-processor platforms. present learn highlights from either and academia specialise in: coherence, synchronization, and allocation; power-awareness, reliability, and reconfigurability; software-based reminiscence tuning; structure layout matters; and workload issues.

Topics and features:

* Describes modern study appropriate to the transforming into disparity among CPU and reminiscence speed

* offers theoretical and useful techniques to the memory-wall challenge, together with a few from fresh world wide symposiums at the topic

* comprises particular suggestions to universal difficulties in numerous working environments

* deals a huge assessment of excessive functionality reminiscence structures, in addition to in-depth discussions of decide on, crucial areas

* encompasses a concise, thorough introductory bankruptcy concerning the field

This special and accomplished compendium assembles the paintings by way of best researchers and pros into features of bettering the memory-system functionality of general-purpose courses. it's superb for researchers and R&D execs with pursuits, or perform, in computing device engineering, computing device structure, reminiscence layout, and basic processor architecture.

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Sample text

1 Introduction Cache systems are designed to minimize the average access time for memory references. Uniprocessor cache misses can be classified into the three categories: conflict, compulsory, and capacity misses [Hil87]. The number of conflict misses can be reduced by a more associative cache or by the introduction of a victim cache [Jou90]. Larger cache lines and a number of prefetching algorithms have been proposed to reduce compulsory misses, while the conventional approach for reducing capacity misses is simply to increase the size of the cache - a brute force approach often enabled by a manufacturing process shrink.

T. Austin. DIVA: A Reliable Substrate for Deep-Submicron Processor Design. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. InProceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Microarchitecture, pp. 196~207, Dec. 1999. P. Sweazy and A. J. Smith, A Class of Compatible Cache Consistency Protocols and their Support by the IEEE Futurebus. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture, pp. 414-423, June 1986. A. Cimatti, E. Clarke, F. Giunchiglia, and M. Roveri, NuSMV: A New Symbolic Model Verifier.

The modeled system consisted of 16 processors connected by a 200 MHz split-transaction address bus and a 16 byte full crossbar for routing data. Each processor had a 1 GHz, 4-way super scalar out-of-order core with split 64 kB 2-way set-associative L1 caches. Main memory latency incurs a 60 ns access time, not including network and arbitration delays. The cache controllers implement an optimized MOESI protocol modeled after the Gigaplane [12]. In the interest of time, we removed the L2 caches and write-buffers from the simulated system.

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