By Lynn V. Foster
The traditional Mayan civilization of southern Mexico and northerly vital the USA has lengthy been defined as "mysterious," even if students were learning this tradition for centuries. Our view of the Maya has replaced dramatically in response to many of the findings of those students; what have been as soon as regarded as "vacant ceremonial centers," inhabited by means of just a couple of calendar clergymen and used as locations of formality by means of the encircling peasant farmers, have now been redefined as historic thriving towns of millions of Maya. Hierogliphic inscriptions, as soon as considered astrological mumbo-jumbo, now learn as names of ancient participants and the towns they governed. The guide to existence within the old Maya global offers a finished and available connection with the best and so much mysterious of civilizations, hailed for its contributions to technology, arithmetic, and expertise. The ebook specializes in fresh groundbreaking discoveries whereas featuring the civilization's earlist beginnings to its conquest through the Spanish within the sixteenth Century. every one bankruptcy is supplemented by means of an in depth bibliography in addition to photos. unique line drawings, and maps. varied sections comprise civilization and archaeology, evolution, geography, society and govt, astronomy and the calendar, funerary ideals and customs, and lots of extra,
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Additional info for Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World (Facts on File Library of World History)
Before the end of the Archaic Period, maize cultivation was widespread in Mesoamerica, and farm crops accounted for an increasing percentage of the diet. In the Tehuacan Valley, for example, cultivated foods grew from 5 percent of the diet in c. E. , they would constitute 75 percent. Enough corn could be grown, harvested, dried, and stored during the rainy season to sustain people during the dry season, which lasted half the year in much of the Mesoamerican region. Complex societies evolved, especially in the wetland areas.
Maize could be harvested and stored in such quantity that it provided sustenance year-round in both the highlands and lowlands. As maize agriculture encouraged more peoples to settle in permanent villages, it also sustained larger populations and created food surpluses. More complex societies resulted. No longer did everyone need to produce food for group survival, and material possessions no longer were limited by a nomadic lifestyle. Social functions could lead to specialization; pottery could replace lighter-weight baskets, and Isthmian Culture: Pottery and Social Complexity BARRA PHASE In the Maya region, precocious settlements evolved along the Pacific coast of Chiapas in the Mazatán area, where some of the earliest E V O L U T I O N O F M AYA C I V I L I Z AT I O N 21 Mexico.
Post-conquest (1521–2000) Pre-Columbian Maya civilization ends with the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica, which begins with the defeat of the Aztecs in 1521 and continues into the southern Maya region in 1524 and Yucatán in 1542. The Maya persevere; today approximately 10 million Maya live in the area. Late Classic (c. 600–900) Maya lowland cities proliferate; number of public hieroglyphic texts increases. The culture reaches its artistic zenith. As the population peaks in the heartland, widespread warfare precedes the collapse of most southern lowland cities.