By Paulo Cappelletti, Carla Golla, Piero Olivo, Enrico Zanoni
A Flash reminiscence is a Non unstable reminiscence (NVM) whose "unit cells" are fabricated in CMOS expertise and programmed and erased electrically. In 1971, Frohman-Bentchkowsky built a folating polysilicon gate tran sistor [1, 2], during which scorching electrons have been injected within the floating gate and got rid of by way of both Ultra-Violet (UV) inner photoemission or by way of Fowler Nordheim tunneling. this is often the "unit mobile" of EPROM (Electrically professional grammable learn in simple terms Memory), which, together with a unmarried transistor, might be very densely built-in. EPROM stories are electrically programmed and erased by means of UV publicity for 20-30 minutes. within the overdue Nineteen Seventies, there were many efforts to advance an electrically erasable EPROM, which ended in EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROMs). EEPROMs use sizzling electron tunneling for software and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for erase. The EEPROM cellphone contains transistors and a tunnel oxide, hence it really is or 3 times the scale of an EPROM. Successively, the mix of scorching provider programming and tunnel erase used to be rediscovered to accomplish a unmarried transistor EEPROM, referred to as Flash EEPROM. the 1st phone according to this idea has been offered in 1979 ; the 1st advertisement product, a 256K reminiscence chip, has been offered by way of Toshiba in 1984 . The marketplace didn't take off until eventually this know-how was once confirmed to be trustworthy and manufacturable .
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Extra info for Flash Memories
These two currents are shown in Fig. 15 . Band-to-band tunneling (BBT) occurs when band-bending is higher than the energy gap of the semiconductor, and the surface electric field is higher than 1 MV / cm. In this condition, tunneling of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band becomes significant, and holes are left in the valence band. Electrons are collected at the source terminal, while holes at the substrate contact, thus generating the leakage current. e. on the voltage drop between source and gate.
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