By David H. Nicastro
Publisher's description: This publication is the results of the editor's efforts to appreciate why structures fail. He has mixed his adventure investigating the motives of creating disasters with huge examine, in an effort to current distinct descriptions of the motives and picking out features of quite a lot of failure mechanisms. This ebook additionally comprises an index of those a variety of mechanisms, besides numerous case reviews taken and increased from his ongoing journal column on "Failures," and an annotated bibliography. a piece on appearing failure investigations places the cloth right into a functional context. Read more...
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M. on November 7, 1940, Kenneth Arkin, the chairman of the Washington State Toll Bridge Authority, arrived at the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Although the wind was not extraordinary, the bridge was undulating noticeably and the stays on the west side of the bridge, which had broken loose, were flapping in the wind. , after measuring the wind speed at 68 km/h 28 beyond failure (42 mi/h), Arkin closed the bridge to all traffic because of its alarming movement. The bridge was twisting at 38 oscillations per min with an amplitude of about 1 m (3 ft) (Levy and Salvadori 1992).
Stability of gravity dams may be easily analyzed using statics. A gravity dam may fail by either overturning or sliding. Because a gravity dam generally has a relatively constant cross section across the stream, it may be analyzed in two dimensions. Consider the free-body diagram of a simplified dam cross section as shown in Fig. 2-14. The gravity dam shown has a height Hd and a base width B and is shown as a triangle of concrete, excluding any parapet at the top. The height of the water behind the dam is Hw, which is kept below Hd to prevent an overtopping failure of a dam.
Even if the details had not been modified, the rod hanger connection would have violated building standards. As built, however, the connection only supported 30% of the minimum load, which explains why the walkways collapsed at well below maximum load (Feld and Carper 1997, pp. 218–222). The NBS built and tested a full-scale mock-up to simulate the failure and found that the static effects were much more significant than the dynamic effects (Kaminetzky 1991, p. 219). 14 beyond failure Figure 2-5.